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Monument
Description : An Overview The Temple of Aphaea is located within a sanctuary complex dedicated to the goddess Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina, which lies in the Saronic Gulf. Aphaia was a Greek goddess who was worshipped exclusively at this sanctuary. The extant temple of c. 500 BC was built over the remains of an earlier temple of c. 570 BC, which was destroyed by fire c. 510 BC. The elements of this destroyed temple were buried in the infill for the larger, flat terrace of the later temple, and are thus well preserved. Abundant traces of paint remain on many of these buried fragments. Significant quantities of Late Bronze Age figurines have been discovered at the site, including proportionally large numbers of female figurines indicating – perhaps – that cult activity at the site was continuous from the 14th century BC, suggesting a Minoan connection for the cult. The last temple is of an unusual plan and is also significant for its pedimental sculptures, which are thought to illustrate the change from Archaic to Early Classical technique. These sculptures are on display in the Glyptothek of Munich, with a number of fragments located in the museums at Aigina and on the site itself. History The sanctuary of Aphaia was located on the top of a hill c. 160 m in elevation at the northeast point of the island. The last form of the sanctuary covered an area of c. 80 by 80 m; earlier phases were less extensive and less well defined. Bronze Age phase In its earliest phase of use during the Bronze Age, the eastern area of the hilltop was an unwalled, open-air sanctuary to a female fertility and agricultural deity. Bronze Age figurines outnumber remains of pottery. Open vessel forms are also at an unusually high proportion versus closed vessels. There are no known settlements or burials in the vicinity, arguing against the remains being due to either usage. Large numbers of small pottery chariots and thrones and miniature vessels have been found. Although there are scattered remains dating to the Early Bronze Age such as two seal stones, remains in significant quantities begin to be deposited in the Middle Bronze Age, and the sanctuary has its peak use in the LHIIIa2 through LHIIIb periods. It is less easy to trace the cult through the Sub-Mycenean period and into the Geometric where cult activity is once more reasonably certain. Late Geometric phase Furtwangler proposes three phases of building at the sanctuary, with the earliest of these demonstrated by an altar at the eastern end dating to c. 700 BC. Also securely known are a cistern at the northeast extremity and a structure identified as a treasury east of the propylon (entrance) of the sanctuary. The temple corresponding to these structures is proposed to be under the later temples and thus not able to be excavated. Archaic phase (Aphaia Temple I) Only detected a (stone socle and mudbrick upper level) peribolos wall enclosing an area of c. 40 by 45 m dating to this phase. This peribolos was not aligned to the axis of the temple. A raised and paved platform was built to connect the temple to the altar. There was a propylon (formal entrance gate) with a wooden superstructure in the southeast side of the peribolos. A 14 m tall column topped by a sphinx was at the northeast side of the sanctuary. Late Archaic Phase (Aphaia Temple II) Construction of a new temple commenced soon after the destruction of the older temple. The remains of the destroyed temple were removed from the site of the new temple and used to fill a c. 40 by 80 m terrace within the overall sanctuary of c. 80 by 80 m. This new temple terrace was aligned on north, west, and south with the plan of the new temple. The temple was a hexastyle peripteral Doric order structure on a 6 by 12 column plan resting on a 15.5 by 30.5 m platform; it had a distyle in antis cella with an opisthodomos and a pronaos. Pedimental Sculptures The marbles from the Late Archaic temple of Aphaia, comprising the sculptural groups of the east and west pediments of the temple, are on display in the Glyptothek of Munich, where they were restored by the Danish neoclassic sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. Sculpture of a warrior from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia II. These works exerted a formative influence on the local character of Neoclassicism in Munich, as exhibited in the architecture of Leo von Klenze. Each pediment centered on the figure of Athena, with groups of combatants, fallen warriors, and arms filling the decreasing angles of the pediments. Sculpture of a warrior from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia II. The theme shared by the pediments was the greatness of Aigina as shown by the exploits of its local heroes in the two Trojan wars, one led by Heracles against Laomedon and a second led by Agamemnon against Priam.
Art-gallery
Description : An Overview Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh is one of the premier institution of India with a very rich collection of Gandharan sculptures, Pahari and Rajasthani miniature paintings. Before the partition of India and Pakistan the collection of art objects, paintings, sculptures and decorative arts, were housed in the Central Museum, Lahore the then capital of Punjab. Now after partition the collection consisting mainly of Gandharan sculptures and Indian miniature paintings ( Mughal and Pahari schools) fell in the share of India. Received in the month of April, 1949, this collection was first housed in Amritsar then Shimla, Patiala and finally shifted to Chandigarh. History The Government Museum and Art Gallery was designed by the Swiss born French architect, Le Corbusier along with his associate architects namely Manmohan Nath Sharma, Pierre Jeanneret and Shiv Dutt Sharma. The design was completed during the period of 1960-62 and construction took place between 1962 and 1967. It is part of the three museums designed by Le Corbusier, the other two being Sanskar Kendra, Ahmedabad and National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo. Building The building is a museum and art gallery which regularly conducts art acquisition programs for expansion. Envisaged as a vehicle for transmission of knowledge in the Second Five Year Plan and the National Education Policy, it serves as a unique cultural and historical resource for the region. Having significant collection of Gandhara sculptures, Pahari miniature painting and contemporary Indian art, it is regularly visited by tourists, artists, scholars and students. Researchers, architects and scholars on Le Corbusier and Modernization are also frequent visitors to the building and its surrounding. They ensemble to study its architectural values as it represents the series of museums designed by Le Corbusier. The pivoted entrance, metal panelled door, fixed furniture, display systems, exposed concrete sculpturesque gargoyles are symbolic of the prevailing style of Chandigarh's architecture. The mural in the museum reception area executed by one of India's finest contemporary artists, Satish Gujral adds colour to the otherwise stark exposed concrete building. The museum serves as a means of repository of cultural history of the region. The museum library is a rich repository of books on subjects of art, architecture and history of art. A special section is dedicated to Dr. M. S. Randhawa, containing archival records of his correspondence on the Making of Chandigarh, available to scholars in a digitized version. The adjacent auditorium serves as a lecture hall for extended activities of the museum such as lectures, film screenings and cultural events. The interior detailing of the auditorium represent the Modernist tradition that was introduced in Chandigarh by Le Corbusier. Collections The beginning of the collection can be traced to the partition of India in 1947 when 40% of the collection of the Central Museum, Lahore became the share of the country. Bodhisattva Maitreya, c. 2nd century AD, Gandhara in chandigarh museum A significant part of this share was the Gandhara sculptures. The collections received in April, 1949 from Pakistan were first housed in Amritsar, then Shimla, Patiala and were finally shifted to Chandigarh upon the inauguration of the museum in 1968. Hariti, c. 2nd century AD, Gandhara Over a period of time, Dr. M. S. Randhawa added Pahari miniature paintings, modern and Indian contemporary art, so that by the time the collection was displayed in the current building designed by Le Corbusier, it was at par with the leading museums of North India. The collection can be divided into the following categories. Buddha and other divinities, c. 2nd century, Gandhara at chandigarh museum
Museum
Description : An Overview The National Rail Museum in the capital of the India is one the most great place to visit in India, especially for railway enthusiasts. If the thumping of a steam engine reverberates in your head and you still can't get enough of it. With a toy train taking rounds of the 10 acre wide spread museum, with both indoor and outdoor exhibits, this museum in India has something to offer to visitors of all ages. Among the most popular exhibits are the Fairy Queen, the oldest working steam locomotive and the saloons of various Maharajas of states of India. If the thudding of the tracks is what excites you, don't miss this one. The National Rail Museum in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, displays exhibits on the history of rail transport in India. The museum was inaugurated on 1 February 1977, and spans over 10 acres (40,000 m2). It is open every day except Mondays and national holidays. In addition to its vast galleries, the museum features simulations of coaches, diesel, electric and steam engines. History The National Rail Museum was first proposed in 1962, under the advisement of rail enthusiast Michael Graham Satow. Construction began in 1970 and on 7 October 1971 the foundation stone was laid at the museum's present site in Chanakyapuri, New Delhi, by the then-President of India V. V. Giri. The museum was inaugurated as the Rail Transport Museum in 1977 by Kamalapati Tripathi, the minister for public transportation. The National Rail Museum was originally intended to be a part of a larger museum that covered the history of railways, roadways, airways, and waterways in India; however, this never happened and it was officially renamed the National Rail Museum in 1995. Collections Patiala State Monorail Trainways: This unique steam monorail was built in 1907. The train is based on the Ewing System and connected the town of Bassi with the city of Sirhind-Fatehgarh, approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) apart. This unique train system consists of a single-rail track on which the load-carrying wheel runs, while large iron wheels on either side keep the train upright. The train was built by Orenstein & Koppel of Berlin and ran until October 1927 when the line was closed. The engine and the chief engineer's inspection car remained in the railways' scrapyard where they were discovered by railroad historian Mike Satow in 1962. One of the engines was restored to full working order by the Northern Railway Workshops in Amritsar. The Chief Engineer's private inspection car was also reconstructed on an old underframe. The two are now in working condition and are on display at the museum. Fairy Queen: The world's oldest working steam locomotive in operational service. Morris Fire Engine: The Morris Fire Engine was built by the fire engineers John Morris and Sons Ltd of Salford, Lancashire, in 1914. The only other Morris-Belsize fire-engine known to exist is preserved by the Whitewebbs Museum of Transport, Clay Hill, London. It was converted to use pneumatic tires, while the fire engine at the National Rail Museum runs on solid rubber tires. Saloon of The Prince of Wales: This saloon car was built for the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) for his visit to India. Electric locomotive 4502 Sir Leslie Wilson: This 1928 WCG-1 locomotive belonged to the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (presently Central Railway). It is one of India's first generation 1,500 V DC electric locomotives, which were known as khakis (English: crabs) since they make a curious moaning sound when at rest, and while in motion the linkage emits an unusual swishing sound. Its unusual features included an articulated body, which made it ideal for use in heavily curved sections of the Ghat mountains. The WCG-1 was in operation as a shunting locomotive until 1994 at Mumbai's Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. Electric locomotive Sir Roger Lumley, Saloon of The Maharaja of Indore, Saloon of The Maharaja of Mysore, Steam Locomotive A-885 HASANG, Steam Locomotive X-37385, WDM2 18040 are other great collections of the National Rail Museum. HPS2 Class 4-6-0 No. 24467 Locomotive WP 7200 A Beyer Garratt 6594 Engine at the National Rail Museum An indoor exhibit at National Rail Museum, New Delhi WAG1 20710 Bidhaan 1:8 Scale toy train at the museum
Museum
Description : An Overview The National Museum of the American Indian is part of the Smithsonian Institution and is committed to advancing knowledge and understanding of the Native cultures of the Western Hemisphere—past, present, and future—through partnership with Native people and others. The museum works to support the continuance of culture, traditional values, and transitions in contemporary Native life. It has three facilities: the National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., which opened on September 21, 2004, on Fourth Street and Independence Avenue, Southwest; the George Gustav Heye Center, a permanent museum in New York City; and the Cultural Resources Center, a research and collections facility in Suitland, Maryland. The foundations for the present collections were first assembled in the former Museum of the American Indian in New York City, which was established in 1916, and which became part of the Smithsonian in 1989. History Following controversy over the discovery by Indian leaders that the Smithsonian Institution held more than 12,000–18,000 Indian remains, mostly in storage, United States Senator Daniel Inouye introduced in 1989 the National Museum of the American Indian Act. Passed as Public Law 101-185, it established the National Museum of the American Indian as "a living memorial to Native Americans and their traditions". The Act also required that human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and objects of cultural patrimony be considered for repatriation to tribal communities, as well as objects acquired illegally. Since 1989 the Smithsonian has repatriated over 5,000 individual remains – about 1/3 of the total estimated human remains in its collection. National Mall (Washington D.C) The site on the National Mall opened in September 2004. Fifteen years in the making, it is the first national museum in the country dedicated exclusively to Native Americans. The five-story, 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m2), curvilinear building is clad in a golden-colored Kasota limestone designed to evoke natural rock formations shaped by wind and water over thousands of years. The museum is set in a 4.25 acres (17,200 m2)-site and is surrounded by simulated wetlands. The museum's east-facing entrance, its prism window and its 120-foot (37 m) high space for contemporary Native performances are direct results of extensive consultations with Native peoples. Similar to the Heye Center in Lower Manhattan, the museum offers a range of exhibitions, film and video screenings, school group programs, public programs and living culture presentations throughout the year. The museum's architect and project designer is Canadian Douglas Cardinal (Blackfoot); its design architects are GBQC Architects of Philadelphia and architect Johnpaul Jones (Cherokee/Choctaw). Disagreements during construction led to Cardinal's being removed from the project, but the building retains his original design intent. He provided continued input during the museum's construction. The structural engineering firm chosen for this project was Severud Associates. Collections The National Museum of the American Indian is home to the collection of the former Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. The collection includes more than 800,000 objects, as well as a photographic archive of 125,000 images. It is divided into the following areas: Amazon; Andes; Arctic/Subarctic; California/Great Basin; Contemporary Art; Mesoamerican/Caribbean; Northwest Coast; Patagonia; Plains/Plateau; Woodlands. The collection, which became part of the Smithsonian in June 1990, was assembled by George Gustav Heye (1874–1957) during a 54-year period, beginning in 1903. He travelled throughout North and South America collecting Native objects. Heye used his collection to found New York's Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation and directed it until his death in 1957. The Heye Foundation's Museum of the American Indian opened to the public in New York City in 1922. The collection is not subject to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. When the National Museum was created in 1989, a law governing repatriation was drafted specifically for the museum, the National Museum of the American Indian Act, upon which NAGPRA was modeled. In addition to repatriation, the museum dialogues with tribal communities regarding the appropriate curation of cultural heritage items. For example, the human remains vault is smudged once a week with tobacco, sage, sweetgrass, and cedar, and sacred Crow objects in the Plains vault are smudged with sage during the full moon. If the appropriate cultural tradition for curating an object is unknown, the Native staff uses their own cultural knowledge and customs to treat materials as respectfully as possible.
Monument
Description : An Overview The Jefferson Memorial is a tribute to Founding Father of the United States, and the founder of the Democratic-Republican Party, Thomas Jefferson. It is also a presidential memorial built in Washington, D.C. between 1939 and 1943, under the sponsorship of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The neoclassical Memorial building is situated in West Potomac Park on the shore of the Tidal Basin off the Washington Channel of the Potomac River. It was designed by the architect John Russell Pope and built by the Philadelphia contractor John McShain. Construction of the building began in 1939 and was completed in 1943. The bronze statue of Jefferson was added in 1947. Pope made references to the Roman Pantheon and Jefferson's own design for the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. The Jefferson Memorial, and the White House located directly north, form one of the main anchor points in the area of the National Mall in D.C. The Washington Monument, just east of the axis on the national Mall, was intended to be located at the intersection of the White House and the site for the Jefferson Memorial to the south, but soft swampy ground which defied 19th century engineering required it be sited to the east. Architecture Construction began on December 15, 1938, and the cornerstone was laid on November 15, 1939, by Franklin Roosevelt. By this point Pope had died (1937) and his surviving partners, Daniel P. Higgins and Otto R. Eggers, took over construction of the memorial. The design was modified at the request of the Commission of Fine Arts to a more conservative design. The memorial cost approximately $3 million to construct. Construction commenced amid significant opposition. The Commission of Fine Arts never actually approved any design for the memorial and even published a pamphlet in 1939 opposing both the design and site of the memorial. In addition, many Washingtonians opposed the site because it was not aligned with L'Enfant's original plan. Finally, many well-established elm and cherry trees, including rare stock donated by Japan in 1912, were destined for removal under the original plan. Construction continued amid the opposition, and although the chaining of women protestors to cherry trees, and the negative press toward the memorial that resulted, caused President Roosevelt considerable dismay, such protests ultimately helped limit the projected footprint of the new memorial, so that it would peacefully co-exist with the spring-blooming cherry orchard flanking and abutting it. Thomas Jefferson Memorial In 1939, the Memorial Commission hosted a competition to select a sculptor for the planned statue in the center of the memorial. They received 101 entries and chose six finalists. Of the six, Rudulph Evans was chosen as the main sculptor and Adolph A. Weinman was chosen to sculpt the pediment relief situated above the entrance. Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. designed the memorial landscape. The Olmsted planting plan installed at the time of construction featured a simple design within a circular driveway; primarily evergreen trees with limited flowering trees and shrubs. The design was perceived as too thin, so white pines were added and some other plantings took place before the dedication in 1943. Many changes to Olmsted's plans occurred in the 1970s, while 1993 and 2000 restorations have attempted to restore integrity to Olmsted's altered design. President Roosevelt ordered trees to be cut so that the view of the memorial from the White House would be enhanced; additional tree pruning was completed to create an unobstructed view between the Jefferson Memorial and Lincoln Memorial. The Jefferson Memorial was officially dedicated by President Roosevelt on April 13, 1943, the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birthday. At that time, Evans' statue had not yet been finished. Due to material shortages during World War II, the statue that was installed at the time was a plaster cast of Evans' work painted to look like bronze. The finished bronze statue was installed in 1947, having been cast by the Roman Bronze Works of New York. Description The Jefferson Memorial is composed of circular marble steps, a portico, a circular colonnade of Ionic order columns, and a shallow dome. The building is open to the elements. It has a diameter of approximately 165 feet. The memorial is constructed of white Imperial Danby marble from Vermont, which rests upon a series of granite and marble-stepped terraces. A flight of granite and marble stairs and platforms, flanked by granite buttresses, lead up from the Tidal Basin to a portico with a triangular pediment. The pediment features a sculpture by Adolph Alexander Weinman depicting the Committee of Five, the five members of the drafting committee of the Declaration of Independence. Beside Jefferson, the members of this committee were John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston. A cornice with an egg and dart molding surrounds this pediment, below which is a plain frieze. Interior The interior of the memorial has a 19-foot (5.8 m) tall, 10,000 lb (4336 kg) bronze statue of Jefferson by the sculptor Rudulph Evans. The statue was added four years after the dedication. Most prominent are the words which are inscribed in a frieze below the dome: "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man." This sentence is taken from a letter written by Jefferson on September 23, 1800, to Dr. Benjamin Rush wherein he defends the constitutional refusal to recognize a state religion. On the panel of the southwest interior wall are excerpts from the Declaration of Independence, written in 1776: We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men. We ... solemnly publish and declare, that these colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states ... And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence,we mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.The inscription uses the word "inalienable", as in Jefferson's draft, rather than "unalienable", as in the published Declaration. On the panel of the northwest interior wall is an excerpt from the 1777 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, except for the last sentence, which is taken from a letter of August 28, 1789, to James Madison: Almighty God hath created the mind free ... All attempts to influence it by temporal punishments or burthens ... are a departure from the plan of the Holy Author of our religion ... No man shall be compelled to frequent or support any religious worship or ministry or shall otherwise suffer on account of his religious opinions or belief, but all men shall be free to profess and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion. I know but one code of morality for men whether acting singly or collectively. The quotes from the panel of the northeast interior wall are from multiple sources. The first sentence, beginning "God who gave ...", is from A Summary View of the Rights of British America. The second, third and fourth sentences are from Notes on the State of Virginia. The fifth sentence, beginning "Nothing is more ...", is from Jefferson's autobiography. The sixth sentence, beginning "Establish the law ...", is from a letter of August 13, 1790, to George Wythe. The final sentence is from a letter of January 4, 1786, to George Washington: God who gave us life gave us liberty. Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever. Commerce between master and slave is despotism. Nothing is more certainly written in the book of fate than these people are to be free. Establish the law for educating the common people. This it is the business of the state to effect and on a general plan. The inscription on the panel of the southeast interior wall is redacted and excerpted from a letter of July 12, 1816, to Samuel Kercheval: I am not an advocate for frequent changes in laws and constitutions. But laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind. As that becomes more developed, more enlightened, as new discoveries are made, new truths discovered and manners and opinions change, with the change of circumstances, institutions must advance also to keep pace with the times. We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy as civilized society to remain ever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors.
Photography
Description : Abstract photography,sometimes called non-objective, experimental, conceptual or concrete photography, is a means of depicting a visual image that does not have an immediate association with the object world and that has been created through the use of photographic equipment, processes or materials. An abstract photograph may isolate a fragment of a natural scene in order to remove its inherent contextfrom the viewer, it may be purposely staged to create a seemingly unreal appearance from real objects, or it may involve the use of color, light, shadow, texture, shape and/or form to convey a feeling, sensation or impression. The image may be produced using traditional photographic equipment like a camera, darkroom or computer, or it may be created without using a camera by directly manipulating film, paper or other photographic media, including digital presentations. DefiningAbstract Photography There has been no commonly-used definition of the term "abstract photography". Books and articles on the subject include everything from a completely representational image of an abstract subject matter, such as Aaron Siskind's photographs of peeling paint, to entirely non-representational imagery created without a camera or film, such as Marco Breuer's fabricated prints and books. The term is both inclusive of a wide range of visual representations and explicit in its categorization of a type of photography that is visibly ambiguous by its very nature. Many photographers, critics, art historians and others have written or spoken about abstract photography without attempting to formalize a specific meaning. Alvin Langdon Coburn in 1916 proposed that an exhibition be organized with the title "Abstract Photography", for which the entry form would clearly state that "no work will be admitted in which the interest of the subject matter is greater than the appreciation of the extraordinary." The proposed exhibition did not happen, yet Coburn later created some distinctly abstract photographs. Photographer and Professor of Psychology John Suler, in his essay Photographic Psychology: Image and Psyche, said that "An abstract photograph draws away from that which is realistic or literal. It draws away from natural appearances and recognizable subjects in the actual world. Some people even say it departs from true meaning, existence, and reality itself. It stands apart from the concrete whole with its purpose instead depending on conceptual meaning and intrinsic form....Here’s the acid test: If you look at a photo and there’s a voice inside you that says 'What is it?'….Well, there you go. It’s an abstract photograph." Barbara Kasten, also a photographer and professor, wrote that "Abstract photography challenges our popular view of photography as an objective image of reality by reasserting its constructed nature....Freed from its duty to represent, abstract photography continues to be a catchall genre for the blending of mediums and disciplines. It is an arena to test photography." German photographer and photographic theorist Gottfried Jäger used the term "concrete photography", playing off the term "concrete art", to describe a particular kind of abstract photography. He said: "Concrete photography does not depict the visible (like realistic or documentary photography); It does not represent the non-visible (like staged, depictive photography); It does not take recourse to views (like image-analytical, conceptual, demonstrative photography). Instead it establishes visibility. It is only visible, the only-visible. In this way it abandons its media character and gains object character." More recently conceptual artist Mel Bochner hand wrote a quote from the Encyclopædia Britannica that said "Photography cannot record abstract ideas." on a note card, then photographed it and printed it using six different photographic processes. He turned the words, the concept and the visualization of the concept into art itself, and in doing so created a work that presented yet another type of abstract photography, again without ever defining the term itself.
Statue
Description : An Overview The Adiyogi statue is a 34-meter-tall (112 ft) excluding plinth, 45-metre-long (147 ft) and 7.62-metre-wide (24.99 ft) statue of the Indian deity Shiva with white Thirunamam at Coimbatore in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which has been recognized by the Guinness World Records as the "Largest Bust Sculpture” in the world. Designed by Jaggi Vasudev, founder of the Isha Foundation, it was built by the foundation and weighs around 500 tonnes (490 long tons; 550 short tons). Jaggi said that the statue is for inspiring and promoting yoga, and is named Adiyogi, which means "the first yogi", because Shiva is known as the originator of yoga. Adiyogi was inaugurated on 24 February 2017 by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, on the occasion of Maha Shivaratri – a Hindu festival celebrated annually as marriage of Lord Shiva with Maa Parvati. The Indian Ministry of Tourism has included the statue as a consecration destination in its official Incredible India campaign. The Adiyogi Statue has been recognized as the "Largest Bust Sculpture" by Guinness World Records. Various environmental activists and groups protested the inauguration claiming that the statue was built in the catchment area of the Noyyal River, thus affecting biodiversity and violating building bylaws. A Public Interest Litigation was also filed by Vellingiri Hill Tribal Protection Society in the Madras High Court challenging the construction of the statue. However the Madras High court on August 12 2016 dismissed the plea, stating no merit or piece of evidence in it. Description Adiyogi is located at the Isha Yoga complex which houses the Dhyanalinga in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu at the foothills of Velliangiri Mountains, a range in the Western Ghats. The statue was designed over two years and manufactured within eight months. The bust is cast in steel. The height of the statue, 112 ft (34 m), symbolizes the 112 possibilities to attain to moksha (liberation) that are mentioned in yogic culture. Jaggi also said that the height represents the 112 chakras in the human system. The Isha Foundation plans to erect such statues in three more locations in the eastern, western and northern parts of India - in Varanasi, Mumbai and Delhi. The statue's face is world's tallest bust of Shiva. The tallest Shiva statue is the Kailashnath Mahadev Statue in Nepal 20-km east of the capital, Katmandu, which is 44 metres (143 ft) tall. A Linga called "Yogeshwar Linga" was consecrated through the ceremony called prana pratishtha, and is placed in front of the Adiyogi statue. This linga has five chakras – Muladhara (root chakra), Svadhishthana (sacral chakra), Manipura (solar plexus chakra), Vishuddhi (throat chakra), and Ajna (third eye chakra), and each one of them has sixteen dimensions. The linga specifically has no Anahata (heart chakra) as it is to represent "a heartless yogi", not heartless as being insensitive but inclusive who doesn't need emotions. Jaggi notes that the statue is named as "Adiyogi", which means "the first yogi", as Shiva is known as the originator of yoga. The South-facing Adiyogi is also called Dakshinamurthy and Adi Guru (first Guru). Inaguration In 2014, on Guru Poornima, a 6.4-metre (21 ft) version of the same statue was unveiled at the Isha Yoga Center. This version weighed 30 tonnes and was constructed in three months by a team of fifteen people. This statue was also made of steel. On 30 January 2017, a replica model of the statue was taken out in a procession. The main statue was inaugurated by Narendra Modi(Current Prime Minister of India) on Maha Shivaratri, 24 February 2017. He also inaugurated the book Adiyogi: The Source of Yoga written by Jaggi and Arundhathi Subramaniam, and lit the yajna fire for the Maha Yoga Yagna. Notable politicians present at the event include Tamil Nadu Governor C. Vidyasagar Rao, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami, Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan, Rajasthan Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje Scindia, Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu, Minister Pon Radhakrishnan, and Puducherry Lieutenant Governor Kiran Bedi. Along with politicians, various celebrities from Bollywood as well as Kollywood like actresses Juhi Chawla and Kajal Aggarwal were also present. To mark the unveiling of the statue, the song "Adiyogi - The source of Yoga" was released by the Isha Foundation on YouTube on 19 February 2017. The song was sung and composed by Kailash Kher with the lyrics being written by Prasoon Joshi and also performed live at the inaugural function by Kher. Narendra Modi at the inauguration mentioned that "[by] practising Yoga, a spirit of oneness is created. Oneness of mind, body and the intellect, oneness with our families and with the society we live in, with fellow humans and with birds, animals and trees." Another 6.4-metre (21 ft) statue of Adiyogi was unveiled in Tennessee, USA, on October 2015 by the Isha Foundation. The abode called "Adiyogi: The Abode of Yoga" in Tennessee is spread over a 2,800 m2 (30,000 sq ft) area and the project cost over $8 million.
Photography
Description : Adventure photography is a niche defined by stunning landscapes, dynamic personalities, and challenging, ever-changing shooting conditions. You could be the participant or an observer looking for great compositions. Finding yourself chasing snowboarders trying to perfect that wildcat spin trick is not uncommon. Waiting for mountain climbers to reach your well composed focal area could also be how you spend your entire day. Versatility is a great aspect of this field. Cold, wet and tiring situations will still need a sharp mind to focus and change settings in the blink of an eye. It can be difficult to stay enthusiastic. There are many different tools to use. It all depends on your chosen area within adventure photography. You don’t want to shoot underwater with your DSLR without proper housing. Likewise, a Go Pro isn’t a great choice for far away subjects. As you will be away from home, or even civilisation, for extended periods of time, how will you ensure your equipment stays usable? Having many memory cards and batteries will help, but having a rechargeable solution is better. Think about investing in a solar panel and an external storage system. Staying safe is the number one priority. Having a broken arm will impede your photography, your success and thus, your happiness level.
Photography
Description : Aerial photography(orairborne imagery) is the taking ofphotographsfrom an aircraft or other flying object.Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wingaircraft,helicopters,unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs or "drones"),balloons,blimpsanddirigibles,rockets,pigeons,kites,parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer. Aerial photography should not be confused withair-to-air photography, where one or more aircraft are used aschase planesthat "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight. History Early history Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer andballoonistGaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as"Nadar", in 1858 overParis,France.However, the photographs he produced no longer exist and therefore the earliest surviving aerial photograph is titled 'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It.' Taken byJames Wallace BlackandSamuel Archer Kingon October 13, 1860, it depictsBostonfrom a height of 630m. Kite aerial photographywas pioneered by British meteorologist E.D. Archibald in 1882. He used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air.FrenchmanArthur Batutbegan using kites for photography in 1888, and wrote a book on his methods in 1890.Samuel Franklin Codydeveloped his advanced 'Man-lifter War Kite' and succeeded in interesting the BritishWar Officewith its capabilities. The first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909, over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short,Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine.
Miscellaneous
Description : An Overview Amer Fort or Amber Fort is a fort located in Amer, Rajasthan, India. Amer is a town with an area of 4 square kilometres (1.5 sq mi) located 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) from Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan. Located high on a hill, it is the principal tourist attraction in Jaipur. The town of Amer was originally built by Meenas, and later it was ruled by Raja Man Singh I. Amer Fort is known for its artistic style elements. With its large ramparts and series of gates and cobbled paths, the fort overlooks Maota Lake, which is the main source of water for the Amer Palace. It consists of the Diwan-e-Aam, or "Hall of Public Audience", the Diwan-e-Khas, or "Hall of Private Audience", the Sheesh Mahal (mirror palace), or Jai Mandir, and the Sukh Niwas where a cool climate is artificially created by winds that blow over a water cascade within the palace. Hence, the Amer Fort is also popularly known as the Amer Palace. The palace was the residence of the Rajput Maharajas and their families. Architecture Layout The Palace is divided into six separate but main sections each with its own entry gate and courtyard. The main entry is through the Suraj Pol (Sun Gate) which leads to the first main courtyard. This was the place where armies would hold victory parades with their war bounty on their return from battles, which were also witnessed by the Royal family's womenfolk through the latticed windows. This gate was built exclusively and was provided with guards as it was the main entry into the palace. It faced east towards the rising sun, hence the name "". Royal cavalcades and dignitaries entered the palace through this gate. First Courtyard An impressive stairway from Jalebi Chowk leads into the main palace grounds. Here, at the entrance to the right of the stairway steps is the Sila Devi temple where the Rajput Maharajas worshipped, starting with Maharaja Mansingh in the 16th century until the 1980s, when the animal sacrifice ritual (sacrifice of a buffalo) practiced by the royalty was stopped. Second Courtyard The second courtyard, up the main stairway of the first level courtyard, houses the Diwan-i-Aam or the Public Audience Hall. Built with a double row of columns, the Diwan-i-Aam is a raised platform with 27 colonnades, each of which is mounted with an elephant-shaped capital, with galleries above it. As the name suggests, the Raja (King) held audience here to hear and receive petitions from the public. Mirrored ceiling in the Mirror Palace Third Courtyard The third courtyard is where the private quarters of the Maharaja, his family and attendants were located. This courtyard is entered through the Ganesh Pol or Ganesh Gate, which is embellished with mosaics and sculptures. The courtyard has two buildings, one opposite to the other, separated by a garden laid in the fashion of the Mughal Gardens. The building to the left of the entrance gate is called the Jai Mandir, which is exquisitely embellished with glass inlaid panels and multi-mirrored ceilings. The mirrors are of convex shape and designed with colored foil and paint which would glitter bright under candlelight at the time it was in use. Also known as Sheesh Mahal (mirror palace), the mirror mosaics and colored glasses were a "glittering jewel box in flickering candlelight". Sheesh mahal was built by King Man Singh in the 16th century and completed in 1727. It is also the foundation year of Jaipur state. However, most of this work was allowed to deteriorate during the period 1970–80 but has since then been in the process of restoration and renovation. The walls around the hall hold carved marble relief panels. The hall provides enchanting vistas of the Maota Lake. On top of Jai Mandir is Jas Mandir, a hall of private audience with floral glass inlays and alabaster relief work. Magic Flower A particular attraction here is the "magic flower" carved marble panel at the base of one of the pillars around the mirror palace depicting two hovering butterflies; the flower has seven unique designs including a fishtail, lotus, hooded cobra, elephant trunk, lion's tail, cob of corn, and scorpion, each one of which is visible by a special way of partially hiding the panel with the hands. Garden The garden, located between the Jai Mandir on the east and the Sukh Niwas on the west, both built on high platforms in the third courtyard, was built by Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1623–68). It is patterned on the lines of the Chahar Bagh or Mughal Garden. It is in a sunken bed, shaped in a hexagonal design. It is laid out with narrow channels lined with marble around a star-shaped pool with a fountain at the center. Water for the garden flows in cascades through channels from the Sukh Niwas and also from the cascade channels called the "chini khana niches" that originate on the terrace of the Jai Mandir. Tripolia Gate Tripolia gate means three gates. It is access to the palace from the west. It opens in three directions, one to the Jaleb Chowk, another to the Man Singh Palace and the third one to the Zenana Deorhi on the south. Lion gate The Lion Gate, the premier gate, was once a guarded gate; it leads to the private quarters in the palace premises and is titled 'Lion Gate' to suggest strength. Built during the reign of Sawai Jai Singh (1699–1743 AD), it is covered with frescoes; its alignment is zigzag, probably made so from security considerations to attack intruders. Fourth courtyard The fourth courtyard is where the Zenana (Royal family women, including concubines or mistresses) lived. This courtyard has many living rooms where the queens resided and who were visited by the king at his choice without being found out as to which queen he was visiting, as all the rooms open into a common corridor.
Monument
Description : An Overview The Khusro Bagh is a well protected walled garden close to the Allahabad junction station. It surrounds the three tombs of the Mughal king - Jehangir’s family. The three tombs belong to Khusrau Mirza (Jehangir’s eldest son), Shah Begum (Jehangir’s first wife) and Princess Sultan Nithar Begam (Jehangir’s daughter). They were buried within this complex in the 17th century. The beautifully carved three-tier tombs exemplify the best of Mughal art and architecture. It is said that Jehangir employed the country’s best artisans to build these tombs. Jehangir’s eldest son was murdered by his brother Shah Jahan. It is believed his mother poisoned herself and died an unnatural death. However, the emperor spared no expense on the tombs. Architecture The three sandstone mausoleums within this walled garden, present an exquisite example of Mughal architecture The design of its main entrance, the surrounding gardens, and the three-tier tomb of Shah Begum, who died in 1604, has been attributed to Aqa Reza, Jahangir’s principal court artist. Shah Begum, originally Manbhawati Bai, was the daughter of Raja Bhagwant Das of Amber. Distressed by the discord between her husband Jahangir and son Khusrau, she committed suicide in 1604 by swallowing opium. Her tomb was designed in 1606 by Aqa Reza and is a three storied terrace plinth without a main mound, inviting comparisons with Fatehpur Sikri by experts. The tomb however has a large chhatri that surmounts the plinth and the arabesque inscriptions that adorn her tomb were carved out by Mir Abdullah Mushkin Qalam, Jahangir's greatest calligrapher. Next to the Begum's is the tomb of Khusrau's sister, Nithar. Architecturally, this is the most elaborate of the three. It lies on an elevated platform and is adorned with panels depicting the scalloped arch motif. Within the plinth are rooms whose ceilings have been elaborately painted with stars in concentric circles. The central room has on its walls floral decorations depicting Persian cypresses, wine vessels, flowers and plants. The tomb of Khusrau, is the last of the three tombs in Khusro Bagh. Khusro was first imprisoned within the garden after he rebelled against his father, Jahangir, in 1606. Following an attempt to escape, he was blinded on Jahangir's instructions. In 1622 he was killed on the orders of Khusrau's brother and Jehangir's third son Prince Khurram, who later became the Emperor Shah Jahan. The tomb has fretwork windows and the tomb of his mare lies near his own. Khusrau's tomb was completed in 1622, while that of Nithar Begum's, which lies between Shah Begum's and Khusrau's tombs, was built on her instructions in 1624-25. Nithar's mausoleum is however empty and it does not contain her tomb within it. During the Revolt of 1857 Khusrau Bagh became the headquarters of the sepoys under Maulvi Liaquat Ali who took charge as the Governor of liberated Prayagraj. In Prayagraj however the Mutiny was swiftly put down and Khusro Bagh was retaken by the British in two weeks. The garden has now lent its name to the surrounding locality of Khusrobagh, which is now a bustling township.
Photography
Description : Pet photography is its own photographic niche these days. Whether it’s photos of your furry friend for your Instagram, or professional dog show pictures, knowing how to successfully photograph pets is a key skill. It’s also a great way to practise forbetter photography in general. Yourpets are unpredictableand fast, providing you with all of the subject matter you need to improve. Some photographers step away from this natural, candid state and opt for portraits. It is difficult enough trying to get a human to sit there and take direction while you snap away. Luckily, pets will do most things for a snack or treat. These might be your own pets, or, if you decide to try out pet photography as a business, pets that belong to another family. Our article will take you through everything you need to know, from camera recommendations to post-processing your images. We will give you creative inspiration, show you what you need to look for and which lenses you and your pet photography will benefit from. If you are looking to turn this into a business, look no further. We have many articles on how you can turn your talent into a healthy profit. You will need time and patience. Let’s show you how to turn yourneighshots intopurrfectimages.
Miscellaneous
Description : Well if you are a Lover of Indian action movies, then you will be watching a lot of south Indian movies too. Because they contain a lot of action. Being a Cinephile of South Indian movies you will be watching them in more detail. I am pretty sure that if you would remind of temple scenes in those movies, you will be getting a image of flat edged white colour temple, let me tell you this is the temple, you have seen many times Of Deity Shiva named as Annamalaiyar Temple. Let’s Dive together and get to know about it. An Overview In the town of Thiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu, situated Arunachalesvara Temple, also called Annamalaiyar Temple. This is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva. It is significant to the Hindu sect of Saivism as one of the temples associated with the five elements, the Pancha Bhoota Stalas, and specifically the element of fire, or Agni. Shiva is worshiped as Arunachalesvara or Annamalaiyar, and is represented by the lingam, with his idol referred to as Agni lingam. His consort Parvati is depicted as Unnamalai Amman. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam. The 9th century Saiva saint poet Manikkavasagar composed the Tiruvempaavai here. The Temple was built by sevappa nayakkar (Nayakar dynasty) is one of the largest temples in India, the temple was established on an area of 10 hectares and has four gates known as Gopurams, Arunachalesvara and Unnamalai Amman being the most prominent among numerous shrines of the temple and the most notable is the thousand-pillared hall built during the Vijayanagar period. The Karthigai Deepam festival is celebrated during the day of the full moon between November and December, and a huge beacon is lit atop the hill and twelve yearly festivals on its calendar. The event is witnessed by three million pilgrims. On the day preceding each full moon, pilgrims circle around the temple base and the Arunachala hills in a worship called Girivalam, a practice carried out by one million pilgrims yearly. Myths In Hindu mythology, Goddess Parvati once closed the eyes of her husband playfully in a flower garden at their abode atop Mount Kailash. Although only a moment for the gods, all light was taken from the universe, and the earth, in turn, was submerged in darkness for years. Parvati performed penance along with other devotees of Shiva. Then her husband appeared as a column of fire at the top of Arunachala hills, returning light to the world. He then merged with Parvati to form Ardhanarishvara, the half-female, half-male form of Shiva. The Arunachala, or red mountain, lies behind the Arunachalesvara temple, and is associated with the temple of its namesake. History The Chola Kings ruled over the region for more than four centuries, from 850 CE to 1280 CE, and were temple patrons. The inscriptions from the Chola king record various gifts like land, sheep, cow and oil to the temple commemorating various victories of the dynasty. The Hoysala kings used Tiruvannamalai as their capital beginning in 1328 CE. There are 48 inscriptions from the Sangama Dynasty (1336–1485 CE), 2 inscriptions from Saluva Dynasty, and 55 inscriptions from Tuluva Dynasty (1491–1570 CE) of the Vijayanagara Empire, reflecting gifts to the temple from their rulers. There are also inscriptions from the rule of Krishnadeva Raya (1509–1529 CE), the most powerful Vijayanagara king and indicating further patronage. Most of the Vijayanagara inscriptions were written in Tamil, with some in Kannada and Sanskrit. The inscriptions in temple from the Vijayanagara kings indicate emphasis on administrative matters and local concerns, which contrasts the inscriptions of the same rulers in other temples like Tirupathi. The majority of the gift related inscriptions are for land endownments, followed by goods, cash endowments, cows and oil for lighting lamps. The town of Tiruvannamalai was at a strategic crossroads during the Vijayanagara Empire, connecting sacred centers of pilgrimage and military routes. There are inscriptions that show the area as an urban center before the precolonial period, with the city developing around the temple, similar to the Nayak ruled cities like Madurai. Architecture Complex and Pillar The temple is situated at the bottom of the Arunachala hills, and faces east, lying over 25 acres. The walls on the east and west measure 700 ft (210 m), the south 1,479 ft (451 m), and the north 1,590 ft (480 m). It has four gateway towers, the gopuram, on its four sides. The eastern tower, the Rajagopuram, is the tallest in the temple. The base of the Rajagopuram is made of granite, measuring 135 ft (41 m) by 98 ft (30 m). It was begun by king Krishnadevaraya (1509–29 CE) of the Vijayanagara dynasty, and completed by Sevappa Nayaka (1532–80 CE). Temple The main shrine of Arunachalesvara faces east, housing images of Nandi and Surya, and is the oldest structure in the temple. Behind the walls of the sanctum, there is an image of Venugopalaswamy (Krishna), an incarnation of Vishnu. Around the sanctum, there are images of Somaskandar, Durga, Chandekeswarar, Gajalakshmi, Arumugaswami, Dakshinamoorthy, Swarnabairavar, Nataraja, and Lingodbhavar—the last an image of Shiva emanating from lingam. Lobby There is a sixteen pillared Deepa Darshana Mandapam, or hall of light, in the third precinct. The temple tree, Magizha, is considered sacred and medicinal, and childless couples tie small cradles to its branches in obeisance. Vedas write that the mast of the temple separated the earth and the sky during creation of the universe. The Kalyana Mandapam, the marriage hall, is in the south-west of the precinct, and is built in Vijayanagara style. A stone trident is present in the outer shrine of the temple in open air, and has protective railings like a sacred tree. The Vasantha Mandapam, meaning the Hall of spring, is the third precinct, and contains the temple office and Kalahateeswarar shrine. The fourth precinct has an image of Nandi, Brahma Theertham, the temple tank, the Yanai Thirai Konda Vinayaga shrine, and a hall with a six-foot-tall statue of Nandi, erected by Vallala Maharaja. Reverence and Worship The temple priests perform the pooja (rituals) during festivals and on a daily basis. Like other Shiva temples of Tamil Nadu, the priests belong to the Shaivaite community, a Brahmin sub-caste. The temple rituals are performed six times a day; Ushatkalam at 5:30 a.m., Kalashanti at 8:00 a.m., Uchikalam at 10:00 a.m., Sayarakshai at 6:00 p.m., Irandamkalam at 8:00 p.m. and Arddha Jamam at 10:00 p.m. Each ritual comprises four steps: abhishekam (sacred bath), alankaram (decoration), naivedyam (food offering) and deepa aradhanai (waving of lamps) for both Arunachaleshvara and Unnamulai Amman. The worship is held amidst music with nagaswaram (pipe instrument) and tavil (percussion instrument), religious instructions in the Vedas read by priests and prostration by worshippers in front of the temple mast. There are weekly rituals like somavaram and sukravaram, fortnightly rituals like pradosham and monthly festivals like amavasai (new moon day), kruttika, purnima (full moon day) and chaturthi. Four prime festivals, the Brahmotsavam, are celebrated yearly. The most important of these lasts ten days during the Tamil month of Karthikai, between November and December, concluding with the celebration of Karthikai Deepam. A huge lamp is lit in a cauldron, containing three tons of ghee, at the top of the Arunachala hills during the Deepam. To mark the occasion, the festival image of Arunachalesvara is taken around the wooden chariot around the mountain. Inscriptions indicate that the festival was celebrated as early as the Chola period (from 850 CE to 1280 CE) and was expanded to ten days in the twentieth century.
Art
Description : Where is this place called Pipili? Pipili is a small town, situated on the way to Puri, Lord Jagannath temple just before 40 kilometers from Puri, Odisha. The income of this town is essentially dependent on the business of its handicrafts of which especially the applique works are the main source. Nowadays, Pipili is globally known as the destination of applique and is where many workers and workshops continue to practice the technique, creating both traditional and contemporary items. BUY NOW What is Applique? The French term ‘Applique’ translates to ‘to apply’ and is explanatory of the technique of the age-old craft. Applique in textiles and is the technique of superimposing threads over small pieces of fabric and round mirrors, onto a large base fabric. Pipili is a small town of Jagannath Dham(Puri District, Odisha) where the craft of applique is held in high esteem. The craft of applique is also prominent in the states of Bihar and Rajasthan, but it is originally originated from Pipili and the way craft makers from Pipili can make those craft can’t be made by anyone else or anywhere else other than them. BUY NOW Origin of Pipili Applique Pipili Applique work owes its origin to the culture of Lord Jagannath during the 12th century. Earlier applique umbrellas and canopies were prepared by the Gajapatis for the annual Ratha Jatra of Jagannath. Recent Trends Artist from other states are now a days following craft makers from Pipili to make these Applique crafts. Also the craft of applique is found to be prominent in the states of Bihar and Rajasthan, but it is originally originated from Pipili and the way craft makers from Pipili can make those craft can’t be made by anyone else or anywhere else other than them. It is one of the products which has been granted Geographical Indication (GI) by the government of India. Designing Description The base material used in this craft work in mainly a piece of cloth, which are various types (Water proof material for umbrellas, velvet for tents, cotton, plastic or glass mirrors and threads). On top of that different types of Hindu mythological sculptures, natural figures, animals including elephant, tiger, horse and birds including peacocks, ducks, parrots also flowers such as Sunflower, Jasmine and Marie-golds are being made now a days. The craft includes embroidering and stitching, attaching multiple small pieces of craft cloths to make a bigger one, the makers use straight stitches, blind stitches or buttonhole stitches to make the crafts look flawless. The annual Chariot Festival, known as Rath Yatra which get celebrated on every year summer, is famous worldwide and people in millions come to witness this festival at Puri, Odisha. On this festivals Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra comes out of the temple to have a visit for Mausima temple nearby, Where the chariots are bedecked with Pipili applique canopies, known as chanduas. As millions of pilgrims come to witness this festival, and they know about the Worldwide famous craft (Pipili Applique) they often seen purchasing appliques like banners, lamps, sunflower craft, umbrellas and pouches(batuas) to offer them to Lord Jagannath. However, applique creations adorn the roadsides of Pipili all year round, with tourists flocking to the town to witness the traditions and exquisite productions of the long established textile art. BUY NOW These days, everytime round the year tourists flock to the town just to get a glimpse and purchase a piece of its colourful applique items. No longer are applique items restricted to the likes of canopies and tents produced as offerings to deities. Time has introduced items such as patachitra, Dokara art, wooden carvings, palm leaf paintings, blouses, purses and modern umbrellas to be enjoyed by all who see the beauty in this hereditary craft. A small conversation with Applique worker Trilochan Mahapatra: At first I would like to address that the shopkeepers and shop owners are so humble that they offer every customer a seat and ask for a cold or hot drink. You will see this gesture in almost all the shops. Then finally after attending a lot of customers Mr. Mahapatra finally gave us some time and talked about the challenges they are facing, adaptations they made and earning of a applique maker. He stated his facts as follows: Mr. Mahapatra Said: He is a applique maker personally from childhood and it has been 45 years, in which he faced many ups and downs but the passion for the craft is what kept him motivated to continue and pass through all hurdles. He said that they have a local society named as ‘Pipili Applique Workers Society’ which is linked with Odisha government. They provide them a applique makers identity card through which they get some subsidiary money to grow their micro productions also this society take care about them during natural disasters too. Giving us an example, he further added that recently before one year on May 2018 during a super cyclone named ‘Fanni’ they got a good amount of relief, personally telling about him he added that he got an relief amount of 30,000 rupees against the waste of some raw material and machineries. Telling about where government is lacking he added that government organising skill development programs for general stitching works and dress materials but not making any sort of arrangements objectively for regional crafts or especially telling about applique works. BUY NOW He further added the new bypass road built in 2016 because of Nabakalebara of Lord Jagannath is a reason behind their massive loss in business now a days. It’s widely affecting them as many of Tourist are now moving through the new road. Commonly they get a upsurge in sales during Cart festival of Lord Jagannath Temple and Christmas holidays but now a days it’s hampered due to bypass road. He said that government is only promoting Konark Sun temple, Puri Jagannath Temple, Bhubaneswar Lingaraj temple and Dhauligiri in the name of tourism, neither promoting of other tourist places in Odisha nor any regional craft across the state. Exporting and Earning of an Applique Maker We further had a wide discussion with different applique makers about the fact that if they are not making an expected amount of money from their store, have they tried to sale or export outside or not? There we met another person who is a full-time worker and have a own applique shop named Jogendra Seth. He said that almost no one in the locality are making international trades but a few from them have suppliers from other states in India and they export some of there craft to them. But there also they are getting a lot of issue on payment as like rarely they get payment on delivering their items, but most of the time vendor pay them money after 6-8 months later after selling the crafts. Sometimes they don’t even get their principal money even. Due to payment issues very few number of workers are now exporting to outer states. When we are talking about there earning, he added that before the bypass road inaugurated, they are earning almost 20-25% profit on their investment but now a days it’s decreased to 13-15%, also he told that Goods and service tax implementation after 2017 also caused a measure problem for them. He also told us from an investment of 10 lakhs a shopowner can earn almost 30,000-35,000 rupees after all expenses. Adaptation for better Future Taking with some of shopkeepers we get a rough idea that now a days customers are not getting satisfied with banners, lamps and umbrellas, so they have added a bit of modern art like bottle paintings, Dokara art, Aluminium foil paintings. Also they told us that now a days they are not selling the ancient patachitra leaves directing, they are framing them with wooden frames to give it a modern look. They are also constantly evolving and now a days if you will have a visit to an applique shop in Pipili applique village then you will find there and thousand variety of products including banners, embroidery saree, dresses, table cloth, garden umbrella, Jewellery box made with korai grass and threads, hundred types of utility purse, which are full with embroidery works, and I would like to tell you that you will find many of these crafts here in www.spenowr.com . BUY NOW Limca Book of Records After centuries of practicing and making there techniques better day by day Pipili has an entry in the 2004 Limca Book of Records (which is a type of Indian Guinness Book of Records) for the world's largest thematic applique work. The 54-metre (177 ft) long work is filled with depictions of India's struggle for independence.
Photography
Description : Architectural photographyis the photographing of buildings and similar structures that are both aesthetically pleasing and accurate representations of their subjects.Architectural photographersare usually skilled in the use of specialized techniques and cameras History The first permanent photograph,View from the Window at Le GrasbyNicéphore Niépce, was also the first architectural photograph as it was a view of buildings. Similarly, photographs taken by early photographer WilliamHenry Fox Talbotwere of architecture, including his photograph of a Latticed window in Lacock Abbey taken in 1835. Throughout the history of photography, buildings have been highly valued photographic subjects, mirroring society's appreciation for architecture and its cultural significance. By the 1860s, architectural photography started to become an established visual medium. Much as building designs changed and broke with traditional forms, architectural photography also evolved. During the early-to-mid-20th century, architectural photography became more creative as photographers used diagonal lines and bold shadows in their compositions, and experimented with other techniques. By the early 1950s, architects were hiring more photographers for commissioned work, resulting in architectural photography being viewed as more of an art form.
Art
Description : Artis a diverse range ofhuman activitiesin creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author'simaginative,conceptualidea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. Music, theatre, film, dance, and otherperforming arts, as well as literature and other media such asinteractive media, are included in a broader definition of art orthe arts.Until the 17th century,artreferred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated fromcraftsorsciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative orapplied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputedand has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming fromhuman agencyand creation.The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known asaesthetics. History The oldest documented forms of art arevisual arts,which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture,printmaking, photography, and other visual media. Sculptures,cave paintings, rock paintings andpetroglyphsfrom theUpper Paleolithicdating to roughly 40,000 years ago have been found,but the precise meaning of such art is often disputed because so little is known about the cultures that produced them. The oldest art objects in the world—a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old—were discovered in a South African cave.Containers that may have been used to hold paints have been found dating as far back as 100,000 years.Etched shells byHomo erectusfrom 430,000 and 540,000 years ago were discovered in 2014. Many great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the great ancient civilizations:Ancient Egypt,Mesopotamia,Persia, India, China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well asInca,Maya, andOlmec. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. Some also have provided the first records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions. InByzantineandMedieval artof the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of subjects about Biblical and religious culture, and used styles that showed the higher glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (flat) forms. Nevertheless, a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe.
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