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Biography
Description : Her JourneyAyesha Goel, a painter and a landscapist, is currently pursuing (BA) English honors from New Delhi, India. She takes orders for customized paintings, providing her clients consultation on the suitable decor for their walls. She likes to experiment with different techniques of paintings and keep herself challenged to excel in her style. At the age of 5, Ayesha started painting the pictures Indian deities, printed in the newspaper. Her passion for painting started with her love for colours. She remembers “Where everyone hated monday , she used to love them because that was her 'newspaper day'. Drawing and colouring them under the 200% level of her excitement and the next day showing them to her teachers and relatives was such a happiness to her. After that, people started calling her junior painter.” Ayesha has been painting for 15 years now. She started as an oil pastel person and gradually explored acrylics or oil paints. Today she works with oil pastels , soft pastels , acrylics and oil paints in one single painting. Her Creative PaintingsHer artwork is a replica of her passion and dedication. She shares, for each landscape painting a light base to the painting is applied with a shade similar to the idea . Then around 3 to 4 layers of paint is applied to complete one section of the painting and for every layer, it takes atleast 2 days for me to complete. She is very specific about her materials, used in the paintings. Her struggle started when she decided to charge for her work and wanted some recognition. To overcome this she started displaying her work under online exhibitions like on Instagram. Ayesha has been awarded by then CM of Delhi Smt. Sheila dixit, at the age of 10. She has also bagged state level winner title four times & represented Delhi in several national and international competitions. She has around 60+ achievements till now. Ayesha likes to paint at night and work on her college assignments during daytime. This way she has been successful in balancing her art and studies to grow optimally in both aspects of life. Ayesha believes, a good work comes from passion, practice and talent. She quotes, “Many artists do not feel to promote their work , but one should proudly and actively share his or her art and talent with the world . There is no single 'perfect way' to become successful.” She thanks her art teacher for keeping her motivated throughout the school life and making her learn different techniques. Ayesha’s vision is to keep herself challenged and explore any unfound crevice in the world of art. Her motto for all the budding artists is “NEVER STOP , NEVER GIVE UP”. Below are some of her best creatives.
Craft
Description : An Overview If you will follow European church making pattern then you will see, there window glasses and skylight glasses are full with patterns and colours. Those are called as stained glass. The Stained-glass term refers to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Many foil glassworks and lamp glasses are found to be made with this. Small piece of colour glasses is joined to make a pattern or a sculpture and the material of stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. By joining small pieces patterns or pictures formed, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln. Patterned or stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained-glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason, stained glass windows have been described as "illuminated wall decorations". The design of a window may be abstract or figurative; may incorporate narratives drawn from the Bible, history, or literature; may represent saints or patrons, or use symbolic motifs, in particular armorial. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church – episodes from the life of Christ; within a parliament building – shields of the constituencies; within a college hall – figures representing the arts and sciences; or within a home – flora, fauna, or landscape. Types & colours of Glasses On the development of technology, during late medieval period glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential material for glass manufacture. Silica requires a very high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve. Such materials as potash, soda, and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable. Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, and gold produces wine red and violet glass. Much modern red glass is produced using copper, which is less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass. Some often-used types are cylinder glass or muff, crown glass, rolled glass, flashed glass and colours used are transparent, green glass, blue glass, red glass, yellow glass, purple glass and white glass. Techniques and Designs Design The subject matter of the window is determined to suit the location, a particular theme, or the wishes of the patron. A small design called a Vidimus is prepared which can be shown to the patron. A scaled model maquette may also be provided. The designer must take into account the design, the structure of the window, the nature and size of the glass available and his or her own preferred technique. A traditional narrative window has panels which relate a story. A figurative window could have rows of saints or dignitaries. Scriptural texts or mottoes are sometimes included and perhaps the names of the patrons or the person to whose memory the window is dedicated. In a window of a traditional type, it is usually left to the discretion of the designer to fill the surrounding areas with borders, floral motifs and canopies. A full-sized cartoon is drawn for every "light" (opening) of the window. A small church window might typically have two lights, with some simple tracery lights above. A large window might have four or five lights. The east or west window of a large cathedral might have seven lights in three tiers, with elaborate tracery. In medieval times the cartoon was drawn directly on the surface of a whitewashed table, which was then used as a pattern for cutting, painting and assembling the window. The cartoon is then divided into a patchwork, providing a template for each small glass piece. The exact position of the lead which holds the glass in place is also noted, as it is part of the calculated visual effect. Art & Pattern on Glass Each piece of glass is selected for the desired colour and cut to match a section of the template. An exact fit is ensured by "grozing" the edges with a tool which can nibble off small pieces. Details of faces, hair and hands can be painted onto the inner surface of the glass using a special glass paint which contains finely ground lead or copper filings, ground glass, gum arabic and a medium such as wine, vinegar or (traditionally) urine. The art of painting details became increasingly elaborate and reached its height in the early 20th century. From 1300 onwards, artists started using "silver stain" which was made with silver nitrate. It gave a yellow effect ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. It was usually painted onto the outside of a piece of glass, then fired to make it permanent. This yellow was particularly useful for enhancing borders, canopies and haloes, and turning blue glass into green glass. By about 1450, a stain known as "Cousin's rose" was used to enhance flesh tones. In the 16th century, a range of glass stains were introduced, most of them coloured by ground glass particles. They were a form of enamel. Painting on glass with these stains was initially used for small heraldic designs and other details. By the 17th century a style of stained glass had evolved that was no longer dependent upon the skilful cutting of coloured glass into sections. Scenes were painted onto glass panels of square format, like tiles. The colours were then annealed to the glass before the pieces were assembled. A method used for embellishment and gilding is the decoration of one side of each of two pieces of thin glass, which are then placed back to back within the lead came. This allows for the use of techniques such as Angel gilding and Eglomise to produce an effect visible from both sides but not exposing the decorated surface to the atmosphere or mechanical damage. Today it can be found to used by people of upper class and represents a value of royalty. Modern use also derived many new feature and usability as home showcase article and exotic sculpture making, small statues and tableware also.
Craft
Description : An Overview Today, in modern era may be people letting go the use of wooden articles due to replacement of fibre and steal materials. But from the day of human evolution to the end of 20th century, human life was widely surrounded by wooden articles. Starting from construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges to home furniture and utensils were made by wood then. So today, let’s discuss more about the maker, who is called carpenter and the skill which is called carpentry. We will discuss the whole part, starting from the history to modern day cutting, shaping and installation of the craft. Traditionally carpenters worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but it has been evolved a lot, many types of ornamental and sculptural works can be seen on wooden articles. History Due to the flexibility to shape to anything, wood was the oldest building and craft material to human. The more complex shapes are improved with the technological improvement from the stone age to the Bronze age to the iron age. Some of the oldest archaeological evidence of carpentry are water well casings. These include an oak and hazel structure dating from 5256 BC, found in Ostrov, Czech Republic, and one built using split oak timbers with mortise and tenon and notched corners excavated in eastern Germany, dating from about 7,000 years ago in the early Neolithic period. A little amount of information is available about carpentry from per-history, but from research of scholars, from folk stories and folktales it has been found that carpentry is as old as stone age but no written evidence is available to satisfy the argument. Some of the oldest surviving wooden buildings in the world are temples in China such as the Nanchan Temple built in 782, the Greensted Church, parts of which are from the 11th century, and the stave churches in Norway from the 12th and 13th centuries. Techniques and Working Carpentry is a type of craft which require a lot of training, which involves both acquiring knowledge and a lot of physical practice. In the life time of a carpenter the phases are like; in the first phase carpenter is an apprentice, then he turns to a journeyman and after lots of experience and competency can eventually attain the name of a master carpenter. Today Institutions are providing pre-apprenticeship training through vocational course programs, in the form of workshop classes and community colleges. But often the carpenter you will find they have worked along side of carpenters and learned by working along side as a peripheral assistance. Carpenter may work for an employer or as a freelancer, but for free lancing they need a good amount of experience and expertise required. Carpenter Life Carpenter in early ages used to make chairs, tables, wooden beds, and almirah for the home use and ploughs and carts for the farmers. But now every home product, it may be a bed, chair, table or a sofa they are full with craft works of flower, animal and birds. It is time consuming and they are using high level wood craving techniques now a days. If you want to know more about wood craving, you can check this article. A carpenter carries a lot of tools. He uses saws for cutting the wood into pieces, sharp chisels and axes to cut it, a plane to make it smooth, a lathe or turning-table to make it round, and hammers and nails to fasten pieces of wood together. The work of a carpenter is skilled labour. It takes a long time to learn to do the work properly. A carpenter has to use his tools he has to have a good eye for correct measurement and he has to think about his work. Before he can make even a chair, he must have the plan of the chair in his mind, and the skill to make it according to his plan. In sort, a carpenter is very useful and important worker in the society and carpentry is a great form of craft. Wooden furniture is far more comfortable that the steal and plastic furniture today. But the situation of global warming is far more important than our comfort. The substitution of steal and plastic furniture to wooden furniture is a requisite demand for the collective good.
Craft
Description : An Overview Apart from common carpentry, there are other forms of wooden works which are far more difficult than carpenter work. If a carpenter’s work takes 2-3 days, an elite wood carving may take 2-3 months. So, what is this work exactly, how it’s being done? Let’s get to know many things and everything about wood craving. If you don’t know about carpentry work which is basic form of wood craft, I suggest you to read that before reading this. Wood craving uses similar tools as carpentry, same cutting tools as knife, chisel and mallet. Craftsman use knife in one hand for some kind of works, sometimes a chisel by two hands or with one hand chisel and one hand on a mallet for making of a wooden figure or sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. As people were fascinated for wood carving from mid-19th century and those techniques were practised by many places through the world, but today survives only in few areas like other carving materials like stone, bronze and terracotta works. The main reason behind low demand of the craft is its vulnerability to decay, insect damage and fire. Interest for wood craft in mid-19th century was developed because of many points. Some of them are; wood is easy to carry that stone; wood is easy to carve and any kind of fine shape can be given to wood which is never possible in stone. Wood crafts are good for making mask and other caring objects, but the vulnerability of rapid damage, in the other hand took the craft to its saturation. Tools for Crafting The carving knife is the foremost important tool, without which the work can’t proceed a step. It helps to pare, cut and smooth wood. Then comes the gouge, which is used for inner areas of a sculpture. Making of inner hallows, rounds and curves. The coping saw is used to cut the chunks of wood. Chisels of many sizes are used; whose straight cutting edge is good for making lines and removing large unrequired pieces. V-tool and U-Gauge are used for making v-shaped and u-shaped cutting edges respectively. Mallet is used with the chisel to make the work more efficient. Other secondary tools are used such as sharpening equipment for sharpening the tool edges and screw and glue for fixing the work on the workbench. Complete Process WoodSelection This is the most important feature of carving, mostly experienced and old carver used to select the wood for carving. The grain side of the wood is the strongest side and it may be straight, interlocked or wavy. The most delicate parts of the sculpture are being carved by with this grain. Carving the blanks are also quite difficult and mostly they were assembled after carving separately. The wood selecting and mapping process is most important because if the most attractive area of the sculpture get damaged then the whole effort will go in vein. Basswood and tupelo; both are hardwoods that are relatively easy to work with. Chestnut, butternut, oak, American walnut, mahogany and teak are also very good woods; while for fine work Italian walnut, sycamore maple, apple, pear, box or plum, are usually chosen. The areas which are not too delicate and will be painted later, usually made with inexpensive material like pine and mango wood. Sculpture Most carver use drawing, small model before working on comparative bigger size sculpture or sometime digital designs are being made to have an idea, so that they can complete the bigger size model easily. Usually the work starts from cutting the big unrequired pieces. Then the work proceeds with knife, chisel and mallet. If a carver makes a large sculpture, then ideally, it’s being built be pieces and then assembled to give a final look. As before it’s being said, the type of wood is most vital. A bad wood can drop the efficiency to negative percentage where a good wood can hike up the efficiency to a level apart. Sometimes it has been seen that several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size and it’s done before processing. Any wood can be carved, but it’s been chosen according to the requirement, for example if a figure needs very fine and keen detailing, then wood with fine grain are used. Professional carver uses the term ‘Chisel’ for both gouge and chisel, but correctly a gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and chisel is a tool with flat edge. Smaller sculptures may require the woodcarver to use knife and larger pieces might require the use of chisel and mallet. But the common rule in wood carving is the carver must work across or with the grain, they should never do it against the grain. Till here we talked about a simple shape of carving and necessary tools for simple carving. But the carver may use a variety of tools for creating details. For example, a veiner or fluter can be used to make deep gouges on the surface. It all stands on the base of requirements. To give the sculpture a smooth texture, rifflers are used and the final polishing is done with abrasive paper. Firstly, large grain paper is used to remove the hard and thick roughness then fine-grained paper is used to give the sculpture slick to the touch. After these procedure finish, the artist may seal and colour the wood with a variety of natural oils, as walnut or linseed oil which protects the wood from dirt and moisture. Oil also makes the sculpture more shinny and the sculpture become so shinny that it may reflect light and you can see your reflection too. Sometimes expensive wax is used with fragile and costly carved products. But this is mostly used in products which stays indoor. Wood carving is a very time consuming and expensive form of sculpture making. But the outcome is mesmerizing and defines the passion of artist in every inch of the sculpture. If you find this article good, please rate us and leave a comment below.
Craft
Description : An Overview I believe everyone is an artist, you wonder why! Well, you will know in sometime. I can bet there is not a single child who had never made a paper aeroplane or paper boat. Yes, only that much takes to be called an artist. To be an artist you need mind of a child, because a child has the most passionate, colorful and joyous mind. Executing from a paper boat to a complex yet beautiful structure is called Origami. Origami is formed of two words, ‘Ori’ and ‘gami’, ori means folding and gami means art of paper folding. The motto of this craft is to make a sculpture from a piece of flat square paper. Modern origami techniques generally discourage the use of cuts, glue or marking on the papers. Sometimes it has been seen that small folds with many papers are made then joined along with to give it an intricate design and complex origami. The techniques are used in packaging, engineering applications and projects also. History The techniques which are being used now a days from 20th century is widely changed from the techniques of 16th century, described by many historians. Starting from China’s culture of burning paper folded origami in funerals to Japan’s ceremonial gifting with greeting cards, those are widely described in many poems of historic poets of Japan and China. In Europe another form of origami folding was famous in 17-18th century, it was actually a origami made with napkin folding was mostly forgotten. Akira Yoshizawa was the person whom we can call the father of modern folding techniques, He stared creating and recording original origami works. He derived techniques like wet-folding and partly diagramming system. He inspired many craftsmen and from 1980s number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties of folded forms, which led to a rapid increase in the complexity of origami models. Types of Origami Origami not only limited to still-life, there are many origami objects are being build which uses kinetic energy of hands to move and those are called action origami. There are different types of origami such as modular origami, wet-folded origami, strip folded etc. Let’s discuss each of them briefly. Modular origami: The base of modular folding is making small pieces of simple folds and latter they join them with the help of glue, thread or cuts to give it an intrinsic and very complex design, which is tricky yet mesmerizing. Many of the modular origami models are decorative folding balls like kusudama, the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue. A Chinese technique which follows large number of pieces are put together to make elaborate models. This is known as 3D origami, sometimes made with paper money is a form of modular folding. Some Chinese refugees who are detained in America derived this technique, so this technique is often called Golden Venture folding, formed from the name of the ship which the Chinese used to came on. Wet-folding: Wet-folding is an origami technique which makes the edges of the sculpture gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries. It can be used, for instance, to produce very natural looking animal models. The adhesive used are become hard when dry and dissolves in water when wet and becoming soft and flexible, is often applied to the paper either at the pulp stage while the paper is being formed, or on the surface of a ready sheet of paper. Pureland origami: Pureland origami have the restrictions that only simple mountain/valley folds may be used. This technique is developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with kindergarten level skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating within the very strict constraints. Kirigami: Kirigami is a technique which is by Japan and the term Kirigami is a Japanese term which means paper cutting. But the modernization of origami made the cutting techniques irrelevant after 1960-1970s. Even the cutting techniques were described in books but modern craftsmen no longer consider models with cuts to be origami. Most modern books of origami don’t even mention the cutting techniques. Strip folding: Strip folding is a combination of paper folding and paper weaving. A common example of strip folding is called the Lucky Star, also called Chinese lucky star, dream star, wishing star, or simply origami star. Another common fold is the Moravian Star which is made by strip folding in 3-dimensional design to include 16 spikes. Techniques and Materials Techniques: Many origami books, online courses are available by which anyone can learn how to make an origami. They describe the techniques from scratch to pro level. Video tutorials are often helpful now a day, you can find some in Spenowr also. From the basic folds from mountain, valley, pleats, reverse folds to difficult and complex level of folding like flapping bird, fish, fish base, waterbomb base you can learn over there. Materials: Almost any flat material can be used for folding, only requirement is that it should hold a crease. There are variety of paper available with different sizes ranging from 2.5 cm to 25 cm, variety of color as dual coloured, one sided coloured, patterned. These papers weights slightly less than copy paper which makes it good for making complex structures. Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper. Related to this is tissue foil, which is made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. A second piece of tissue can be glued onto the reverse side to produce a tissue/foil/tissue sandwich. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil; it must be handmade. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models. Artisan papers such as unryu, gampi, kozo, saa, and abaca have long fibers and are often extremely strong. As these papers are floppy to start with, they are often backcoated or resized with methylcellulose or wheat paste before folding. Also, these papers are extremely thin and compressible, allowing for thin, narrowed limbs as in the case of insect models. Paper money from various countries is also popular to create origami with; this is known variously as Dollar Origami, Orikane, and Money Origami. Tools: Most of the fold are done using a flat surface and some folds are also made in air. People wonder that, no tools needed to form an origami, however some tools like bone folder, which allows sharp creases to be made in paper easily, paper clips can act as extra pairs of fingers and tweezers can be used for extremely small folds. Sometimes a ruler or ballpoint embosser to score the creases. Today kindergarten to play group and upper knowledge group children are being taught origami making for entertainment and creativity development porpose.
Craft
Description : An Overview Generally, we consider toy is for small child and those model or miniature replica is not for bigger age group. But I strongly deny the fact that toys are not something that bigger or adult age group like. Those models are so engaging that as soon as anyone sees them, get attracted immediately. That may be differ from person to person by their taste but no one can say that they don’t like toys. From the day of a baby bore to the day of death, toys may be proved to the only thing which can attract anyone instantly. There is no one who is reading this, who never played with a toy. Let’s know a bit more about the things that made our childhood beautiful and colourful. You may have come across with many toys whether a monkey, a bear, a playing gun or a toy train. We all know that a toy is an item used in play, especially one designed for a definite role. Playing with a toy is not a entertaining thing but it’s an super engaging infotainment. As your children will learn many things about animal, birds, wildlife and society through different models. Playing with toys is considered to be important when it comes to growing up and learning about the world around us. Younger children use toys to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, and practice skills they will need as adults. Different materials are being used like wood, plastic, paper, clay to make toys. For example, a child can make a paper boat or an Aeroplane and flows or flies it, this is also a form of paper crafted toys. You can learn more about how intrinsic designs are being made with paper and now a days they are very popular by going through this link (). From the stone era to interactive digital entertainment, toys have made an incredible journey. Let’s start exploring about them from their history. History The origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century. Toys are mainly made for children. The oldest known doll toy is thought to be 4,000 years old. As today kids play with blocks, historians discovered children in early ages use to play with different shaped rocks and sticks. Wherever they find any unique shape of rock or stick they pick them up and start playing. There have been many proofs found on excavation from Indus valley civilization (3010–1500 BCE) include small carts, whistles shaped like birds, and toy monkeys. It has been also found that ancient Greece and Rome children played with dolls made with terracotta, sticks, bows and arrows, and yo-yos. It has been also found Egyptian children played with dolls that had wigs and movable limbs made with stone and woods, and all these are thousands of years ago. Evolving Era of Toys The development of today’s toy and futuristic today was actually started in 18-19th century. Puzzles, Geographical infotainment toys like jigsaw puzzle in 1767 by John Spilsbury, which consist of eight themes- the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland. The rocking horse toy was developed at the same time which enhance the ability of a child to ride a real horse. Blowing bubbles from leftover washing up soap, hoops, toy wagons, kites, spinning wheel and dolls all are developed during mid-18th century. In the 19th century, the emphasis was put on toys that had an educational purpose like, building blocks, puzzles, books, cards and board games. Toys with more complex mechanism and toys which can move with the kinetic energy of hand or leg of human has been derived during this period. Then toys get categorized according to the player or functionality. Dolls and house building blocks with toy kitchen sets are the toys what girls started playing with and marble, kites and toy trains are the toys, boys started playing with. Modern Era of Toys 20th century was the time where toys took a bigger market and toys started to be produced by big manufacturing industries. They started to produce toys with respect to financial background by categorizing people like high class, medium class and lower class. Industries use variety range of machine and engineering techniques to fulfil the rising demand of toys during this period. During this time kinds of puzzle and complex Rubik’s cube became the most fascinated elements. During the period of second world war, many clay and rubber toys were derived after development of synthetic rubber. On this mid-20th century toys became cheaper than before. In the year 1950s, Danish company Lego’s line of colourful interlocking plastic brick construction sets developed, which possess a special attraction even today. Barbie doll, Action Man, Rubik’s cube and Lego block are having a wide market then and now also. Today, many computerized dolls are invented which can recognize your voice, interact and identify objects also. As I added earlier, what toys can do has changed, the engagement and curiosity of children play with toys has not. Types of Toys Construction sets: A Greek philosopher wrote that the future architect should play at building houses as a child. Construction sets consist of simple small pieces, using them you can create a big complex house, which develops architectural and creative mind of a child. Many big architecture or monument which are world famous were once projected in a small model and estimated all data required for pre-processing. These toys are made with wooden, plastic, card board or clay pieces. Vehicles: My person taste is vehicles, as I love automobile nowadays, I was very fond of little cars and cars which runs on kinetic energy or based on simple mechanical theory. Children like to play with hot wheels, miniature aircraft, toy boats, military vehicles and transformer cars, these vehicles are produced with great attention and details, sometimes starting from 5USD, it goes high up to 5000USD. Dolls: A doll is a model of a human or mostly a cute girl. Modern dolls are made with high quality cloth and plastic. Dolls like Barbie and Kevin are most popular and expensive yet. Barbie dolls with their parlour set, Kitchen toys, house are often seen in many medium class houses. Although dolls are made for children, they are also found in many adult people keeping them on their bed, study table or showcase. It’s a ritual that couple men give teddy to their women on Teddy day in Valentine week. Also, many promotional merchandises for marketing purposes, digital toys for interactive socialization and learning purposes and toys which uses physical activity to stay fit has been developed nowadays. Modern approach towards Toys Today parents forgot the benefits of toys to make their children learn the value of socialization and learning about diversity. They are often seen using digital gadgets like mobile phone and tablets to keep their children busy, which is a misguidance to the future society. As from research it has been found that a child’s brain is not that developed to observe and understand the things inside a digital screen. They stuck inside it because they can’t understand what’s going on and prolonged use of those things may lead your child to mental retardation or autism. Thank you for reading the article, please share your review and give a rating, how much you liked it! Please leave the name of your favorite toy which loved to play with or playing with.
Craft
Description : An Overview The regional waver who make these crafts says, this a craft which anyone can learn and do within minutes, and where they can get the raw material! Obviously, from the nature and for free. From mats to wall hangings and utility crafts everything can be made with these techniques and your own creativity. The beauty of these mats lies in the feeling of sitting on it. In 20th century people of rural india use these mats to sit and sleep during hot summer. This is not the sitalpati mat, you can check about the sitalpati mat by going through this link: Let’s know more about screw pine craft. Well the origin of screw pine craft is Kerala, this technique is used to create different types of mats, wall hangings and utility crafts using the leaves of the screw pine plant. As per an application filed by Development Commissioner (Handicrafts), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, "Screw pine craft of Kerala" has been granted Registration in Part A in respect of Mats, Door Mats, Wall Hangings, Bed Mats, Prayer Mats falling in Class – 27 under Sub-section (1) of Section 13 of Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 with effect from 30 November 2015. Makers to Users Mat waving with screw pine leaves are generally practiced by Kerala and most of tribal and rural villages in India. The mats produced by screw pine possess a very significant role in Indian marriages and traditional festivals. In 20th century it was a honour to be offered to sit over a screw pine mat. Important visitors were offered to sit on the mat and finer varieties of these mats were used as sheets over bed to sleep. Under the skill India movement, women also getting empowered to work with screw pine craft. It is playing a very significant role due to its eco-friendly form of practice. People are getting attracted towards it because of many things as, it uses an eco-friendly material, it can provide a cooling sense outside in hot summer, most people love the beach hats made with screw pine leaves. From simple table mat to dining table mat, light weight bags, simple floor mats, home slippers even you can find stylish file holders with screw pine also. If you will visit to any Hindu temple in india, you will find the offering of flower and fruits to god is also made with utensils of screw pine. The uses of screw pine craft in daily life is too many. Let’s Learn to make one for ourselves You have to cut down the pine leaves and thorns are spliced apart splicing the leaf into two, then the leaves are rolled outwards to prevent them from curling. The whole rolling and then drying part will be completed with bare hands, hence it makes it quite tedious. Then the leaves get sorted in terms of size, width and density according to their uses. Weaving a mat: It’s the simplest technique, you just need to put one leaf over another to give it a flat mat structure. The opening ends are tucked in the opposite directing which will face the floor and cannot be seen by the viewer. To weave a 6ft. by 4ft. mat, it takes one day to a craftsman. The finer version with designs may take more time depending on the work. Making of Container: Firstly, square measured dimension cut outs are formed and then they joined with the help of card board. Usually card board is inside and cannot be seen because it’s covered with pine mats. A special type of knot is formed to make the edges look good and flawless. Many types of bags, hand fans, document holder, wall hanging, hats are on market made by pine leaves. Screw pine products are now on trend due to its eco-friendly practice, also government steps like “Make in India” and “Skill India” also promoting employment for craftsmen on this practice.
Craft
Description : An Overview Being a 1000 years old craft it’s near to its extinction but the impression it had in rural areas especially in villages was phenomenal. Even today if you will attend big festivals of south-west india and cultural events like Kumbh mela, you will come across these things. In villages of India it is known as Kathputli and in urbar areas to across the Globe, it is called as string puppetry. It is widely believed that Kathputli art’s native home is Rajasthan. As we will go further, I will tell you about all the process and working culture of Kathputli (String Puppetry). History Today many countries are claiming over the creation and ownership of string puppetry. However, many scholars found evidence of 1000 years old and more old proofs of string puppetry in the form of folk tales, ballads and sometimes even in folk songs, which tells that Kathputli (String Puppetry) is developed in Rajasthan, India. Tribes of Rajasthan have been performing this from ancient times and it is an undivided part of Rajasthani culture and tradition. It is believed that the 1500 years old Bhat community started the use of Kathputli. There was a time when No Village fair, no religious festival and no social gathering in Rajasthan can be completed without the Kathputli. The tradition and culture of Kathputli is based on folk tales and stories. They used to portray the lifestyle of ancient Rajastani tribal people and Rajastani royal family lives though the act. Rajastani Kings and well-off families always have a passion towards art and crafts. They encouraged the craftsmen in developing various art crafts ranging from wood and marble, craving to weaving, pottery and painting. Bhat community claims their contribution for Kathputli and share their folk tales. They also add that they have received great honour and prestige from the rulers of Rajasthan. It’s almost on the door of extinction but for the quality of the craft it holds the second position on the top list and most popular after Ghoomar in Rajasthan. Many scholars are working the field of preserving and promoting the art of Kathputli, also has puppet theatre and museums. Mythological Believe We have listened this from folk tales which is widely believed to be true that, Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati taken a human form and visited a sculptor’s shop. As they stopped and during a small conversation with the sculptor, they breathed life into these puppets and then the puppets started moving and dancing. As soon God moved from that space, the puppets became lifeless again. They the puppeteer came to God and requested to give them life but Goddess Parvati said, “As you are the creator of this small puppets you must give them life, not us”. They that sculptor got the idea to attach strings to the puppets and make the move and dance. Construction and Working If you will observe a string puppet you will find that, it is comprised of segments connected to one another so nicely. They can be moved individually or connectedly as needed. There hands, forearms, shoulders, chest, hip, legs all are so well connected that they can be moved as a whole by a balanced movement for example: a full round, swing or a flying movement and can be moved separately when needed, for example: eye movements, lower jaw movements, hip movements, hand & legs movement. When the puppet moves after the body making completed, they walk their backsides sticking out and knees bent. That’s why artist use clothes which are loose and flexible for movement. The string is used are always plastic, nylon strings which are very fine that they cannot be noticed from a 2-meter distance, which makes the act more beautiful. Also, the Puppeteer designs the puppet according to need of the play. The designing of the puppet is defined by the act, the script, the dressings required for the show. In a theatre the artist will hold the strings by hands, wrists or fingers, most of the time placed horizontally to the surface. There are small items that can be found in fishing store accessories that can be very useful such as swivels, lead weights for ballast, plastic strings (nylon, polypropylene) preferably multi-stranded, which are more flexible and also call less attention to themselves. To more easily adjust the length of the strings, one can mount them on clasps that can be attached to nails or staples on the side of the puppet, just like the control. Many times, small masks and wigs are used to use the same puppet for different characters. Extinction Since it was a 1000 years old art, this doesn’t have the modern touch what needed to attract people on the millennial and post-millennial ages. As people of this ages are very much fascinated and attracted towards the modern-day arts like: Illusion arts, 3D arts and digital graphics art. But Central government and state government is working constantly to preserve and promote those through small art events. Since no new artist are joining these skills, string puppetry is almost at the phase of end. In short period we will face the time when we will see these art craft forms in museum. Government should take steps, where new artist who will show passion and interest towards this craft will get monetary help, then we may keep this from being extinctic.
Art
Description : An Overview As the name suggests, miniature paintings are colorful handmade paintings very small in size. One of the outstanding features of these paintings is the intricate brushwork which contributes to their unique identity. The colors used in the paintings are derived from various natural sources like vegetables, indigo, precious stones, gold and silver. While artists all around the world convey their respective theme through their paintings, the most common theme used in the miniature paintings of India comprises of the Ragas or a pattern of musical notes, and religious and mythological stories. Miniature paintings are made on a very small scale especially for books or albums. These are executed on materials, such as paper and cloth. The Palas of Bengal are considered the pioneers of miniature painting in India, but the art form reached its zenith during the Mughal rule. The tradition of miniature paintings was further taken forward by the artists of various Rajasthani schools of painting, including the Kishangarh, Bundi Jaipur, Mewar and Marwar. The Mughals brought the art of Miniature painting to the land of India from Persia. The Mughal ruler Humayun brought the specialists of miniature painting from Persia. An atelier was built by the succeeding Mughal Emperor, Akbar to promote the rich art form. These Persian artists then trained the Indian artists who produced the paintings, inspired by the lavish and romantic lives of the Mughals, in a new distinctive style. Indian artist also produced few miniature paintings in their own unique style which is now known as Rajput or Rajasthani Miniature. The Indian artists who didn't make the required grade were shifted back to their respective family homes. However, they carried the Mughal painting traits while returning from the Mughal Imperial atelier. Several painting schools such as Mewar (Udaipur), Kota, Bundi, Marwar (Jodhpur), Jaipur, Bikaner, and Kishangarh have emerged during the time. The early Rajasthani and Pahari paintings were highly influenced by the Mughal style. The early Mewar paintings are evidence of the formative style of Rajasthani School of painting at the end of the 16th century. History of Miniature Paintings Miniature paintings originated in India around 750 A.D when the Palas ruled over the eastern part of India. Since religious teachings of the Buddha, accompanied by his images, were written on palm leaves, these paintings became popular. As these paintings were done on palm leaves, they had to be miniature in nature because of space constraint. Around 960 A.D, similar paintings were introduced in the western parts of India by the rulers of the Chalukya Dynasty. Growth of Miniature Painting in Mughal Times During Mughal period, miniature paintings often portrayed religious themes. With the rise of the Mughal Empire, miniature paintings started growing on a level unknown before. Thanks to Akbar’s love for art, Indian miniature paintings combined elements of Persian style of painting, to give rise to the Mughal style of painting. These miniature paintings further evolved with the influence of European paintings in the Mughal court. Even after the decline of the Mughal Empire, miniature paintings and artists were patronized by the Rajput rulers of Rajasthan. Though influenced by the Mughal style of painting, the miniature paintings of Rajasthan had their own distinct features and often depicted the royal lifestyle and mythological stories of Lord Krishna and Radha. Most of these miniature paintings depicted the lifestyle of kings and queens and also narrated their tales of bravery. Some of these paintings were also created to showcase the contribution of various rulers towards their respective subjects and kingdoms. Content While there exists a plethora of themes in Rajput paintings, a common motif found throughout Rajput works is the purposeful manipulation of space. In particular, the inclusion of fuller spaces is meant to emphasize the lack of boundaries and inseparability of characters and landscapes. In this way, the individuality of physical characters is almost rejected, allowing both the depicted backgrounds and human figures to be equally expressive. Outside of a purely artistic standpoint, Rajput paintings were often politically charged and commented on social values of the time. Mewar's rulers wanted these painting to portray their ambitions and establish their legacy. Therefore, paintings were often indicative of a ruler's legacy or their changes made to better society. Both of these factors clearly distinguish Rajput paintings from Mughal works. While, from a chronological standpoint, both of these cultures clashed with one another, Rajput paintings only superficially adopted Mughal fashion and cultural standards. Elements, such as precise likenesses in portraiture, utilized by popular Mughal artists (Govardhan, Hashim, etc.) are not found in Rajput works. Likewise, Rajput techniques are not predominantly seen in Mughal paintings: "At the opening of the eighteenth century, therefore, Rajput painting remains recognizably different in intent from traditional Mughal attitudes." Schools of Miniature Paintings Beginning from the Pala style of miniature paintings, several schools of miniature paintings evolved in India over the course of several centuries. These schools were the products of the social, religious, economic and political atmosphere prevalent in different regions of India. Though these schools of miniature paintings were influenced by each other, they had their own distinct features as well. Some of the important schools of miniature paintings are mentioned below: 1.Pala School (emphasized on the symbolic use of colors and the themes were often taken from the Buddhist tantric rituals, Pala School include the skillful and graceful usage of lines, and modeling forms by delicate and expressive variation of pressure, usage of natural colors, etc.) 2.Orissa School (Emphasized on love stories of Radha and Krishna and also stories from ‘Krishna Leela’ and ‘Gita Govinda’, These paintings were rich in color and often depicted the majestic landscape of the eastern parts of India) 3.Jain School (One of the earliest schools of miniature paintings in india and emphasized on the paintings often displayed male figures and goddesses of the Tirthankara. Also, the goddesses shown in the paintings were often heavily ornamented) 4.Mughal School (Emphasized on Scenes from the royal court, hunting expeditions, wild life and battles were often displayed through these paintings. Plants and trees were portrayed realistically and the paintings had rich frames that were decorated heavily) 5.Rajasthani School (Emphasized on the royal lifestyle of kings and queens, Rajasthani miniature paintings often portrayed the legacy of present and past rulers) 6.Pahari School (Emphasized on Each and every style of painting, but the portrayal of gods and goddesses is one of the most common features) 7.Deccan School (Emphasized on intense colors and sensuous looking female figures. The ladies were portrayed with beautiful faces, large eyes and broad foreheads)
Art
Description : An overview on Life of Picasso Pablo Picasso was a person, who influenced artists of 20th century a lot through his amazing painting skills and achievements. He lived from October 1881- April 1973, and during his life he has given many mesmerizing paintings which are showcasing around the world in both museum and private collections. He spent most of his adult life in France and he was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist and theatre designer. He explored and developed many forms and styles of painting and well known for co-founding the cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage and some other wide variety of styles. In his childhood and adolescence, he showed extra-ordinary talent by paintings inspired with natural objects. In 20th century when he was around 25 years old, he experimented with new and different techniques and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work style of an older artist motivated Picasso and then he explored and developed modern techniques with it. Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles. With an exceptional fertile career, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his remarkable artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. Style and Technique of Picasso From the beginning of his career, Picasso showed an interest in subject matter of every kind and demonstrated a great stylistic versatility that enabled him to work in different form of arts at once. He was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The total number of art work he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 painting, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs. 1911, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, oil on canvas, 61.3 × 50.5 cm The medium in which Picasso made his most important contributions was painting. In his paintings, Picasso used colour as an expressive element, but he relied mostly on drawing rather than making the most forms and spaces in colour. He used to add sands and other small particles to add different texture to the painting. Along with that if we will look towards his sculpture making style, earlier sculptures by Picasso were carved from wood or modelled in wax or clay, but from 1909 to 1928 he abandoned those techniques and made sculptural constructions using diverse materials. 1913–14, L'Homme aux cartes (Card Player), oil on canvas, 108 × 89.5 cm Picasso painted most of his arts from imagination and memories. According to William Rubin, “Picasso could only make great art from subjects that truly involved him”. The art critic Arthur Danto said Picasso's work constitutes a "vast pictorial autobiography" that provides some basis for the popular conception that "Picasso invented a new style each time he fell in love with a new woman". The autobiographical nature of Picasso's art is reinforced by his habit of dating his works, often to the day. He explained: "I want to leave to posterity a documentation that will be as complete as possible. That's why I put a date on everything I do." Artistic Legacy Picasso’s influence was and remains immense and widely acknowledged by his admirers and his art devotees. On his dominating period over art his enemies say he has been corrupting influence, with equal violence, his friends say he is the greatest artist alive. On the occasion of his 1939 retrospective at MoMA, Life magazine wrote: "During the 25 years he has dominated modern European art. 1916, L'anis del mono (Bottle of Anis del Mono), oil on canvas, 46 × 54.6 cm At the time of his death many of his paintings were in his possession as he kept off the art market what he did not need to sell. Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artist, including his competitor Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musee Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Malaga. Pablo Picasso, 1901, Old Woman (Woman with Gloves), oil on cardboard, 67 × 52.1 cm The Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of his early works, created while he was living in Spain, including many rarely seen works which reveal his firm grounding in classical techniques. The museum also holds many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartes, his close friend and personal secretary. Guernica was on display in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981, it was returned to Spain and was on exhibit at the Cason del Buen Retiro of the Museo del Prado. In 1992, the painting was put on display in Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened. As of 2015, Picasso remained the top-ranked artist in terms of sales of his works at auction, according to Art Market Trends report. More of his paintings has been stolen, report of the Art Loss Register had 1,147 of his works listed as stolen, in the year 2012. Picasso is played by Antonio Banderas in the 2018 season of Genius, which focuses on his life and art. Auction history Several paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Garcon a la pipe sold for US$104 million at Sotheby's on 4 May 2004, establishing a new price record. Dora Maar au Chat sold for US$95.2 million at Sotheby's on 3 May 2006. On 4 May 2010, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust was sold at Christie's for $106.5 million. The 1932 work, which depicts Picasso's mistress Marie-Therese Walter reclining and as a bust, was in the personal collection of Los Angeles philanthropist Frances Lasker Brody, who died in November 2009. On 11 May 2015 his painting Women of Algiers set the record for the highest price ever paid for a painting when it sold for US$179.3 million at Christie's in New York. 1909, Femme assise (Sitzende Frau), oil on canvas, 100 × 80 cm On 21 June 2016, a painting by Pablo Picasso titled Femme Assise (1909) sold for £43.2 million at Sotheby's London, exceeding the estimate by nearly $20 million, setting a world record for the highest price ever paid at auction for a Cubist work. On 17 May 2017, The Jerusalem Post in an article titled "Picasso Work Stolen By Nazis Sells for $45 Million at Auction" reported the sale of a portrait painted by Picasso, the 1939 Femme assise, robe bleu, which was previously misappropriated during the early years of WWII. The painting has changed hands several times since its recovery, most recently through auction in May 2017 at Christie's in New York City.
Craft
Description : An Overview A shell or sea shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are often found washed up on beaches by beachcombers. The shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have decomposed. Most shells found on beaches are marine mollusks, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Empty seashells are often picked up by beachcombers. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive (often in bulk) and then killed and cleaned, specifically for the commercial trade. Seashells have been used by humans for many different purposes throughout history and pre-history. However fresh water mussels and freshwater snails are used for different purposes also. Shell Craft Shell craft is the craft of making decorative objects, or of decorating surfaces, using seashells. The craft includes the design and creation of small items such as shell jewelry and figurines made from shells; middle-sized objects such as boxes and mirror frames covered in shells and larger constructions including mosaics and shell grottos. Types of Craft using seashell Seashell Jewellery People who love the beach hate leaving it behind. Make seashell jewellery products to sell at beachside resorts or anywhere there are beach lovers. Basic jewellery ideas like hemp and shell bracelets, silver-stranded shell necklaces or dangling shell earrings are good for a start-up. Design, create and sell sets by order or make several to sell on consignment at a local shop. But more over now a days you can purchase them, from sitting on your couch. It’s simple and easy by visiting these links and buy. Shell Home Decor Seashell lovers like bringing the feel of the beach home with them. Make home decor products like shell-embellished mirrors, fireplace surrounds or picture frames. Other good ideas are shell-covered jewellery boxes, planters and seashell-filled lamps. Wedding Favor Beach-themed weddings are always in vogue. Supply beach-loving brides with wedding favor that support a tropical theme. Start with small burlap favor bags and fill them with a combination of shells and potpourri. You could customize the favor by printing and attaching customized tags with the bride and groom's name on them. Other ideas are shell centrepieces, large shell placard holders for the reception or shell-accented flower girl baskets. Christmas Ornaments People who have enthusiasm for unusual Christmas ornaments or want to decorate a Christmas tree with a beach theme will like seashell ornaments. You could sprinkle gold or silver glitter on sea shells that have been prepared with a glue spray. Finish those ornaments with gold or silver ribbon for hangers. If you like to paint, paint the interior or exterior of seashells with holiday or beach scenes. Glue seashells to a slim rope with a hot glue gun to create a seashell garland for holiday trees. Fill a clear plastic globe ornament with a small amount of sand and a few seashells. After you fill the globe, glue the top in place. Experiences of small start-ups During talk with a shell craft start-up owner MR. Pankaj Ghose, He suggested that anyone can start business, if someone is really creative and innovative with crafts and have passion for these things. Generally, tourist come from different regions across the world to beach places or beach resorts get attracted more on these things. A craft maker can sell directly by making his own stall near beaches with the needful authorization from government or they can sell them to agents or vendors, who will sell them at their own risk. If you will go to any popular beach in india like Goa, Puri, Chandrabhaga, Gopalpur, Kanyakumari etc. you will find a lot of sea shell craft seller, who sell different types of shell jewellery and home decorates made with shell at very affordable price. Today craftsmen don’t even need to go out or search for vendors to sell their shell crafts, they can sell them directly through e-commerce platforms, and platforms like Spenowr, who are specially focused on the niche of art & crafts and constantly working for future development of artists and craftsmen will be best in my believe.
Craft
Description : An Overview A carpet is a floor covering textile craft usually of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing. In middle age the pile was made from wool, but today craftsmen are using synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon or polyester are often used, as these are less expensive than wool. Carpets are used for many purposes as making the room look attractive, a comfortable place to sit or for children play, used as a yoga or prayer mat, insulating feet from cold tile. Carpets are used in industrial and commercial establishments such as retail stores and hotels and in private homes. Today factories mass-producing carpets in different variety, in terms of price and quality levels for commercial buildings to costly hand-knotted wool rugs that are used in private homes of wealthy families. Types of Carpet Woven Carpet The carpet is produced on a loom quite similar to woven fabric. The pile can be plush or Berber. Plush carpet is a cut pile and Berber carpet is a loop pile. There are new styles of carpet combining the two styles called cut and loop carpeting. Normally many colored yarns are used and this process is capable of producing intricate patterns from predetermined designs. These carpets are usually the most expensive due to the relatively slow speed of the manufacturing process. These are very famous in India, Iran and other Asian countries. Needle felt These carpets are more technologically advanced. Needle felts are produced by intermingling and felting individual synthetic fibers using barbed and forked needles forming an extremely durable carpet. These carpets are normally found in commercial settings such as hotels and restaurants where there is frequent traffic. Knotted Carpet Knotting by hand is most prevalent in oriental rugs and carpets. Kashmir carpets are also hand-knotted. Pile carpets, like flat carpets, can be woven on a loom. Both vertical and horizontal looms have been used in the production of European and oriental carpets. The warp threads are set up on the frame of the loom before weaving begins. A number of weavers may work together on the same carpet. A row of knots is completed and cut. The knots are secured with (usually one to four) rows of weft. The warp in woven carpet is usually cotton and the weft is jute. There are several styles of knotting, but the two main types of knot are the symmetrical and asymmetrical. Kashmir is known for hand knotted carpets of silk or wool. Tufted These are carpets that have their pile injected into a backing material, which is itself then bonded to a secondary backing made of a woven hessian weave or a manmade alternative to provide stability. The pile is often sheared in order to achieve different textures. This is the most common method of manufacturing of domestic carpets for floor covering purposes in the world. Others A flatweave carpet is created by interlocking warp (vertical) and weft (horizontal) threads. Types of oriental flatwoven carpet include kilim, soumak, plain weave, and tapestry weave. A hooked rug is a simple type of rug handmade by pulling strips of cloth such as wool or cotton through the meshes of a sturdy fabric such as burlap. This type of rug is now generally made as a handicraft. The process of creating a hooked rug is called Rug hooking Unlike woven carpets, embroidery carpets' are not formed on a loom. Their pattern is established by the application of stitches to a cloth (often linen) base. Materials and Fibers Carpet can be formulated from many single or blended natural and synthetic fibres. Fibres are chosen for durability, appearance, ease of manufacture, and cost. In terms of scale of production, the dominant yarn constructions are polyamides (nylons) and polypropylene with an estimated 90% of the commercial market. Some of regularly used materials are: Nylon, Polypropylene, Wool and wool-blends, Polyester and Acrylic etc. Trend Whether it may be day to day use or in terms of luxury or cinematic world. Carpets have a wide variety of use. There are many stories about magic carpets, legendary flying carpets that can be used to transport people who are on it instantaneously or quickly to their destination. Disney's Aladdin depicts a magic carpet found by Aladdin and Abu in the Cave of Wonders while trying to find Genie's lamp. Aladdin and Jasmine ride on him to go on a ride around the world. In film festivals like Cannes film festival, Oscar or Filmfare, VIP celebrities walk on the red-carpet. It’s an expression which means to welcome a guest lavishly and handsomely. You might have heard many expressions like "snug as a bug in a rug" means "wrapped up tight, warm, and comfortable", "pull the rug out from under (someone)", meaning to "suddenly deprive of important support", "lie like a rug" means "to tell lies shamelessly", "pull the rug out (from under someone)" means "to make someone or someone's plans fall through" or "to upset someone's plans". These are some commonly used expression with reference to carpet.
Craft
Description : An Overview Kasuti embroidery is originated from Karnataka In India, which is a traditional form of folk embroidery. During talk with our team, some experienced stitchers told us that kasuri embroidery is a counted-thread technique that is closely related to blackwork. The beautiful motifs use only a few simple stitches, but the results are stunning, creating detailed borders and intricate designs. There is no possible way to trace and implant the design prematurely through outlines. The best part of kasuri embroidery is, it’s unique counting the thread process and reversibility. History Kasuti embroidery is originated approximately before 1300 years ago, back during period of Chalukya in Karnataka, India. The name Kasuti itself possess the meaning of craft as kai means ‘hand’ and Suti means ‘cotton thread’ which indicates the work done by use of hand and cotton thread. Kasuti is one of 64 arts what women courtiers in the Mysore Kingdom expected to be adapt in 17th century. Kasuti is a folk design influenced by rangoli patterns and flowers. For occasional clothing stitchers use mirror, with gold and silver thread embroidery. Chandrakali saree which possess heavy work of kasuri stitches is mostly seen in Karnataki wedding and has a premier importance. Kasuti Works Kasuti work involves embroidering very intricate patterns like chariot, palanquin, motifs of gopurams of temples, lamps and conch shells. The work is very hard as stitchers need to count each thread on the cloth to make the design look even and they ensure the both side of the cloth look alike. First of all, the stitchers need to draw the pattern with charcoal or pencil which is to be embroidered and then needles of proper size and thread of requisite thickness are selected. Types of stitches are Ganti (double running stitch used for marking vertical, horizontal and diagonal lines), Murgi (zig-zag stitch), Neyge (running stitch), Menthe (cross stitch resembling fenugreek seeds). The most frequently used colors are red, purple, green, pink, crimson and orange. Some religious motifs are the Gopurams of temples, the chariot and palanquin in which the deity is carried on ceremonial occasions, the lotus, the tuisi katti which is the enclosure for the sacred tulsi plant. Elephants, horses, peacocks with spread plumage, birds of different kinds, animals and flowers are standard motifs. The cradle, anklet-bells, palanquins and other articles of everyday use are artistically depicted. The material on which the embroidery is executed is a hand-woven cloth of dark colour, usually black. Modern Trend Kasuti embroidery has gone beyond its traditional boundaries and today you can see kasuti embroidery works in other dress materials, even western clothing also. Other advanced workers who had learned the techniques are selling their form of kasuti embroidery (a blend with modern clothing). But the price that original village traditional workers are getting, is no way near to the selling price that the vendor selling in the marker. But today, due to wide use of e-commerce platforms and specialized platforms like Spenowr, hundreds of kasuti embroidery stitchers are registering, selling and getting the price what they have compromised for a long time.
Craft
Description : An Overview Phulkari is a cloth craft which synonymous with Punjab and its rich heritage. A cloth full with floral work by different colored threads, embroidered and filled with flowers is called phulkari craft. It plays a special role in Punjabi lifestyle, especially during their occasions like marriage ceremonies, birthdays and other joyous festivals. Punjabi women created innumerable alluring and interesting designs and patterns by their skillful manipulation of the darn stitch. Simple and sparsely embroidered long scarfs(Duppatas), oversized long scarf (odhinis), and shawls, made for everyday use, were referred as Phulkaris, whereas clothing items that covered the entire body, made for special and ceremonial occasions like weddings and birth of a son were called Baghs (large garden). In Phulkari embroidery ornaments the cloth, whereas in Bagh, it entirely covers the garment so that the base cloth is not visible. When a girl child was born in typical Punjabi family, her mother and grandmother, start stitching bhags and phulkaris, which were to be given at the time of marriage. Depending on the status the family would give dowry of 11 to 101 bhags and phulkaris. They were embroidered by the women for their own use and use of other family members and were not for sale in the market. Thus, it was a purely domestic and folk art which brings color there day-to-day life. But now in modern era you can find them at cloth store and online stores as well. Types of Phulkari Craft Bagh Bagh is the style where the complete cloth is covered with embroidery work and with number of draning stitches of different shapes like horizontal, vertical and diagonal stitches. Many times, it has been seen that embroiderer make designs of what he sees around like utensils, rolling pin, vegetables and sometimes it has been seen that embroiderer making animal and bird designs too. Chope and Subhar Chope and Subhar style of embroidery work has been worn by brides. The chope is embroidered both sides on red with yellow. Shapes like triangle, small square has been made and edges are embroidered with fine arts. The Subhar has a central motif and four motifs on the corners. Darshan Dwar Darshan Dwar was a type of embroidery from phulkari which was made as a gift material, offering or bhet. Its design contains mainly geometric shapes and patterns, pillars and candid shot of human like structural embroideries. Sainchi Sainchi style is the only style of phulkari where the figures are first drawn using black ink. Then it was filled with embroidering with darn stitches. As first a rough drawing was made, it becomes easy to make even a difficult figure. Due to this you can see many complex designs were being made by Sainchi style of embroidering, for example: many scenes of everyday village life as women cooking, man ploughing, smoking hookah, women grinding wheat flour on chakki, officers coming to village carrying umbrella etc. Other types of phulkari seen in different regions of Punjab are Phulkari of South and Southwestern Punjab region, Neelak, Til patra, Ghunghat Bagh, Chhamaas etc. Revival of Phulkari Craft Traditional phulkari embroidery form became more or less on the path of extinct. The old phulkari artists were capable of making craft directly without tracing blocks, but the new artists don’t have those skills and they can’t work without tracing blocks. Phulkari was awarded the geographical indication status of india but that level of authenticity is vanished now. Over the years, the Indian and Punjab governments have been working towards promotion of Phulkari embroidery, by organizing special training programs, fairs, and exhibitions. Since most of the phulkari artist are selling their products by middle man, so they are not getting paid the actual labour cost and it’s no way near to selling price. But now a days phulkari artists are getting more profit due to e-commerce platform. As there is no middle man policies and embroiderer or artist can register and sell directly through them. Especially platforms like Spenowr, who are focused only on the niche of art and craft are giving the more visibility which is leading them to more profit and better tomorrow.
Monument
Description : An Overview The Khusro Bagh is a well protected walled garden close to the Allahabad junction station. It surrounds the three tombs of the Mughal king - Jehangir’s family. The three tombs belong to Khusrau Mirza (Jehangir’s eldest son), Shah Begum (Jehangir’s first wife) and Princess Sultan Nithar Begam (Jehangir’s daughter). They were buried within this complex in the 17th century. The beautifully carved three-tier tombs exemplify the best of Mughal art and architecture. It is said that Jehangir employed the country’s best artisans to build these tombs. Jehangir’s eldest son was murdered by his brother Shah Jahan. It is believed his mother poisoned herself and died an unnatural death. However, the emperor spared no expense on the tombs. Architecture The three sandstone mausoleums within this walled garden, present an exquisite example of Mughal architecture The design of its main entrance, the surrounding gardens, and the three-tier tomb of Shah Begum, who died in 1604, has been attributed to Aqa Reza, Jahangir’s principal court artist. Shah Begum, originally Manbhawati Bai, was the daughter of Raja Bhagwant Das of Amber. Distressed by the discord between her husband Jahangir and son Khusrau, she committed suicide in 1604 by swallowing opium. Her tomb was designed in 1606 by Aqa Reza and is a three storied terrace plinth without a main mound, inviting comparisons with Fatehpur Sikri by experts. The tomb however has a large chhatri that surmounts the plinth and the arabesque inscriptions that adorn her tomb were carved out by Mir Abdullah Mushkin Qalam, Jahangir's greatest calligrapher. Next to the Begum's is the tomb of Khusrau's sister, Nithar. Architecturally, this is the most elaborate of the three. It lies on an elevated platform and is adorned with panels depicting the scalloped arch motif. Within the plinth are rooms whose ceilings have been elaborately painted with stars in concentric circles. The central room has on its walls floral decorations depicting Persian cypresses, wine vessels, flowers and plants. The tomb of Khusrau, is the last of the three tombs in Khusro Bagh. Khusro was first imprisoned within the garden after he rebelled against his father, Jahangir, in 1606. Following an attempt to escape, he was blinded on Jahangir's instructions. In 1622 he was killed on the orders of Khusrau's brother and Jehangir's third son Prince Khurram, who later became the Emperor Shah Jahan. The tomb has fretwork windows and the tomb of his mare lies near his own. Khusrau's tomb was completed in 1622, while that of Nithar Begum's, which lies between Shah Begum's and Khusrau's tombs, was built on her instructions in 1624-25. Nithar's mausoleum is however empty and it does not contain her tomb within it. During the Revolt of 1857 Khusrau Bagh became the headquarters of the sepoys under Maulvi Liaquat Ali who took charge as the Governor of liberated Prayagraj. In Prayagraj however the Mutiny was swiftly put down and Khusro Bagh was retaken by the British in two weeks. The garden has now lent its name to the surrounding locality of Khusrobagh, which is now a bustling township.
Craft
Description : An Overview Terracotta or you can call this earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. It is also used for various practical uses including vessels (notably flower pots), water and waste water pipes, roofing tiles, bricks, and surface embellishment in building construction. The term is also used to refer to the natural brownish orange color of most terracotta, which varies considerably. Architectural terracotta can also refer to decorated ceramic elements such as antefixes and revetments, which made a large contribution to the appearance of temples and other buildings in the classical architecture of Europe, as well as in the Ancient Near East. In archaeology and art history, "terracotta" is often used to describe objects such as figurines not made on a potter's wheel. Vessels and other objects that are or might be made on a wheel from the same material are called earthenware pottery; the choice of term depends on the type of object rather than the material or firing technique. Unglazed pieces, and those made for building construction and industry, are also more likely to be referred to as terracotta, whereas tableware and other vessels are called earthenware (though sometimes terracotta if unglazed), or by a more precise term such as faience. Making Process of Terracotta Craft An appropriate refined clay is formed to the desired shape. After drying it is placed in a kiln or atop combustible material in a pit, and then fired. The typical firing temperature is around 1,000 °C (1,830 °F), though it may be as low as 600 °C (1,112 °F) in historic and archaeological examples. The iron content, reacting with oxygen during firing, gives the fired body a reddish color, though the overall color varies widely across shades of yellow, orange, buff, red, "terracotta", pink, grey or brown. Fired terracotta is not watertight, but surface-burnishing the body before firing can decrease its porousness and a layer of glaze can make it watertight. It is suitable for use below ground to carry pressurized water (an archaic use), for garden pots or building decoration in many environments, and for oil containers, oil lamps, or ovens. Most other uses, such as for tableware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments, require the material to be glazed. Terracotta, if uncracked, will ring if lightly struck. Painted terracotta is typically first covered with a thin coat of gesso, then painted. It has been very widely used but the paint is only suitable for indoor positions and is much less durable than fired colors in or under a ceramic glaze. Terracotta sculpture was very rarely left in its "raw" fired state in the West until the 18th century. Terracotta History Terracotta female figurines were uncovered by archaeologists in excavations of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan (3000–1500 BC). Along with phallus-shaped stones, these suggest some sort of fertility cult. The Burney Relief is an outstanding terracotta plaque from Ancient Mesopotamia of about 1950 BC. In Mesoamerica, the great majority of Olmec figurines were in terracotta. Many ushabti mortuary statuettes were also made of terracotta in Ancient Egypt. Indian sculpture made heavy use of terracotta from as early as the Indus Valley Civilization (with stone and metal sculpture being rather rare), and in more sophisticated areas had largely abandoned modeling for using molds by the 1st century BC. This allows relatively large figures, nearly up to life-size, to be made, especially in the Gupta period and the centuries immediately following it. Several vigorous local popular traditions of terracotta folk sculpture remain active today, such as the Bankura horses. Precolonial West African sculpture also made extensive use of terracotta. The regions most recognized for producing terracotta art in that part of the world include the Nok culture of central and north-central Nigeria. These related, but separate, traditions also gave birth to elaborate schools of bronze and brass sculpture in the area. In the 18th-century unglazed terracotta, which had long been used for preliminary clay models or maquettes that were then fired, became fashionable as a material for small sculptures including portrait busts. It was much easier to work than carved materials, and allowed a more spontaneous approach by the artist. Claude Michel (1738–1814), known as Clodion, was an influential pioneer in France. John Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770), a Flemish portrait sculptor working in England, sold his terracotta modelli for larger works in stone, and produced busts only in terracotta. In the next century the French sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse made many terracotta pieces, but possibly the most famous is The Abduction of Hippodameia depicting the Greek mythological scene of a centaur kidnapping Hippodameia on her wedding day. Architecture Terracotta tiles have a long history in many parts of the world. Many ancient and traditional roofing styles included more elaborate sculptural elements than the plain roof tiles, such as Chinese Imperial roof decoration and the antefix of western classical architecture. In India West Bengal made a speciality of terracotta temples, with the sculpted decoration from the same material as the main brick construction. In the 19th century the possibilities of terracotta decoration of buildings were again appreciated by architects, often using thicker pieces of terracotta, and surfaces that are not flat. The American architect Louis Sullivan is well known for his elaborate glazed terracotta ornamentation, designs that would have been impossible to execute in any other medium. Terracotta and tile were used extensively in the town buildings of Victorian Birmingham, England. By about 1930 the widespread use of concrete and Modernist architecture largely ended the use of terracotta in architecture. Advantages in Sculpture Terracotta is much cheaper, simpler and quicker than making a sculpture on bronze. Less use of tools with limited knives, wooden tools and most extensive use of fingers make, allows the artist for a more flexible approach. Small detailing can be done flawlessly, compared to stone statue. Re-usable mold-making techniques makes the production simpler to make more identical pieces quicker. Robust durable works for outdoor use require greater thickness and so will be heavier, with more care needed in the drying of the unfinished piece to prevent cracking as the material shrinks. Compared to marble sculpture and other stonework the finished product is far lighter and may be further painted and glazed to produce objects with color or durable simulations of metal patina. Terracotta also has some disadvantages like, big sculpture is very tough to be fired properly (as the process of firing makes sculpture strong), as example we can see various terracotta sculptures across globe often show sagging and cracked.
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