Do you know india owns a statue which is almost 2.5 times taller than Statue of Liberty!

World's Tallest Monument

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  • Category : Statue

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An Overview

 Since time immemorial, architecture and monuments have given India her identity. From historical Ajanta & Ellora caves to Delwara Temple of Mount Abu and from Taj Mahal to Meenakshi Temple of Madurai, Indian architecture showcases its elegance and superiority across the globe. The most prolific creation in recent times, the Statue of Unity, is the World’s Tallest Monument. It represents more than a colossal structure facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada. It is an iconic symbol of the ‘Iron Man’, who played an important role during India’s freedom struggle and thereafter in the unification of the princely states. It reminds the world of the towering personality of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the nucleus of India’s integration as a united country.

Image result for statue of unity

Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting the 552 princely states of India to form the single Union of India. It is located in the state of Gujarat, India. It is the world's tallest statue with a height of (597 ft) 182 metres. It is located on a river facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada in Kevadiya colony, 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Surat.

                                         Image result for The Statue of Unity is an enlarged version of this statue in the Ahmedabad International Airport.

                     The Statue of Unity is an enlarged version of this statue in the Ahmedabad International Airport.

The project was first announced in 2010 and the construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Larsen & Toubro, It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar, and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd birth anniversary of Patel.

 

Design

 The statue depicts Vallabhbhai Patel, one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement, the first Deputy Prime Minister of India, and responsible for the integration of hundreds of princely states into the modern Republic of India.The Statue of Unity is an enlarged version of this statue in the Ahmedabad International Airport.

                                                                     Image result for Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement and responsible for the unification of 552 princely states to form the modern political boundary of India.[

                                                                            Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Ji

The Statue of Unity is a much larger replica of a statue of the leader installed at Ahmedabad International Airport. Commenting on the design, Ram Sutar's son, Anil Sutar, explains that "the expression, posture and pose justify the dignity, confidence, iron will as well as kindness that his personality exudes. The head is up, a shawl flung from shoulders and hands are on the side as if he is set to walk". Three models of the design measuring 3 feet (0.91 m), 18 feet (5.5 m), and 30 feet (9.1 m) were initially created. Once the design of the largest model was approved, a detailed 3D-scan was produced which formed the basis for the bronze cladding cast in a foundry in China. 

                                        Image result for Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the museum within the complex of statue of unity

Patel's dhoti-clad legs and the use of sandals for footwear rendered the design thinner at the base than at the top thereby affecting its stability. This was addressed by maintaining a slenderness ratio of 16:19 rather than the customary 8:14 ratio of other tall buildings. The statue is built to withstand winds of up to 180 kilometres per hour (110 mph) and earthquakes measuring 6.5 on the Richter scale which are at a depth of 10 km and within a radius of 12 km of the statue. This is aided by the use of two 250-tonne tuned mass dampers which ensure maximum stability. The total height of the structure is 240 m (790 ft), with a base of 58 m (190 ft) and statue of 182 m (597 ft). The height of 182 was specifically chosen to match the number of seats in the Gujarat Legislative Assembly.

 

Funding

 The statue of Unity was built by Public Private Partnership model, with most of the money raised by the Government of Gujarat. The Gujarat state government had allotted 500 crore for the project in the budget from 2012 to 2015. In the 2014–15 Union Budget,200 crore were allocated for the construction of the statue. Funds were also contributed by Public Sector Undertakings under Corporate Social Responsibility scheme.

 

Construction

 A consortium comprising Turner Construction, Michael Graves and Associates and the Meinhardt Group supervised the project. It took 57 months to complete – 15 months for planning, 40 months for construction and two months for handing over by the consortium. The total cost of the project was estimated to be about 2,063 crore by the government. The tender bids for the first phase were invited in October 2013 and were closed in November 2013. 

                    Related image

Indian infrastructure company Larsen & Toubro won the contract on 27 October 2014 for its lowest bid of 2,989 crore for the design, construction and maintenance. They commenced the construction on 31 October 2014. In the first phase of the project, 1,347 crore were for the main statue, 235 crore for the exhibition hall and convention centre, 83 crore for the bridge connecting the memorial to the mainland and 657 crore for the maintenance of the structure for 15 years after its completion. The Sadhu Bet hillock was flattened from 70 to 55 metres to lay the foundation. 

Image result for The statue under construction in January 2018

L&T employed over 3000 workers and 250 engineers in the statue's construction. The core of the statue used 210,000 cubic metres (7,400,000 cu ft) of cement concrete, 6500 tonnes of structural steel, and 18500 tonnes of reinforced steel. The outer façade is made up of 1700 tonnes of bronze plates and 1850 tonnes of bronze cladding which in turn comprise 565 macro and 6000 micro panels. The bronze panels were cast in Jiangxi Tongqing Metal Handicrafts Co. Ltd (the TQ Art foundry) in China as suitable facilities were unavailable in India. The bronze panels were transported over sea and then by road to the workshop near the construction site where they were assembled. 

Image result for The statue under construction in January 2018

Local tribals belonging to the Tadvi tribe opposed land acquisition for the development of tourism infrastructure around the statue. They have been offered cash and land compensation, and have been provided jobs. People of Kevadia, Kothi, Waghodia, Limbdi, Navagam, and Gora villages opposed the construction of the statue and demanded the restitution of the land rights over 375 hectares (927 acres) of land acquired earlier for the dam as well as the formation of new Garudeshwar subdistrict. They also opposed the formation of Kevadia Area Development Authority (KADA) and the construction of Garudeshwar weir-cum-causeway project. The government of Gujarat accepted their demands. 

Construction of the monument was completed in mid-October 2018; and the inaugural ceremony was held on 31 October 2018, presided over by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The statue has been described as a tribute to Indian engineering skills.

 

Trend

 The Statue of Unity is the world's tallest statue at 182 metres (597 ft). It rises 54 metres (177 ft) higher than the previous record holder, the Spring Temple Buddha in China's Henan province. The previous tallest statue in India was the 41 m (135 ft) statue of Hanuman at the Paritala Anjaneya Temple near Vijayawada in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The statue can be seen within a 7 km (4.3 mi) radius. 

                                                                  Image result for Statue of Unity sign board across the river.

                                                                Statue of Unity sign board across the river.

The monument is constructed on a river island named Sadhu Bet, 3.2 km (2.0 mi) away from and facing the Narmada Dam downstream. The statue and its surroundings occupy more than 2 hectares (4.9 acres), and are surrounded by a 12 km (7.5 mi) long artificial lake formed by the Garudeshwar weir downstream on the Narmada river. 

                              Related image

                           Approximate heights of various notable statues in which the tallest in Statue Of Unity

The statue is divided into five zones of which only three are accessible to the public. From its base to the level of Patel's shins is the first zone which has three levels and includes an exhibition area, mezzanine and roof. Zone 1 contains a memorial garden and a museum. The second zone reaches up to Patel's thighs, while the third extends up to the viewing gallery at 153 metres. Zone 4 is the maintenance area while the final zone comprises the head and shoulders of the statue. 

Image result for Statue of Unity, seen from the paved approach walkway.

The museum in zone 1 catalogues the life of Sardar Patel and his contributions. An adjoining audio-visual gallery provides a 15-minute presentation on Patel and also describes the tribal culture of the state. The concrete towers which form the statue's legs contain two elevators each. Each lift can carry 26 people at a time to the viewing gallery in just over 30 seconds. The gallery is located at a height of 153 metres (502 ft) and can hold up to 200 people.

 

 

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This includes 95 feet (29 metres) sculpture of Valluvar standing upon a 38 feet (12 metres) pedestal that represents the 38 chapters of Virtue, the first of the three books of the Kural text. The statue itself represents the second and third books of the Kural text, namely, Wealth and Love. The whole design signifies that wealth and love be earned and enjoyed on the foundation of solid virtue. The right hand of the statue with three fingers pointing skywards signifies the three cantos of the Kural text, namely, Aram, Porul, and Inbam (Virtue, Wealth, and Love, respectively), combined. The head of the statue stands at a height of 200 feet above the sea level. The statue, with its slight bend around the waist is reminiscent of a dancing pose of the Hindu deities like Nataraja. The statue weighs 7,000 tons (14 million pounds). The monument is regarded as a cultural fusion because of its juxtaposition beside the Vivekananda Rock Memorial. Built-in conformation with traditional Indian architecture, the statue has provision to provide a hollow portion inside from toe to scalp. Visitors, however, will not be allowed to scale, but instead be permitted to climb up to the foot of the statue at a height of 38 feet. Construction The project was conceived by then Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi in December 1975. On 15 April 1979, the then Prime Minister Morarji Desai laid the foundation stone for the statue, in the presence of the then Chief Minister, M. G. Ramachandran. However, the actual sculpting work, led by Dr.V. Ganapati Sthapati, former principal of the Government College of Architecture at Mahabalipuram, began a decade later on 6 September 1990, on the tiny island adjacent to the Vivekananda Rock Memorial when funds were allocated in the 1990-91 budget. Sthapathy was chosen for the project over 300 master builders because his suggestion for an all-stone monument to the poet-philosopher prevailed. 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Description : An Overview A statue made with stone, usually by carving or assembled to form a visually interesting three-dimensional shape is called stone statue. Since early civilization of human, Stone is being used in architectural sculpture on the outside of buildings and now a days it’s mostly used for making stone sculptures. We can find evidence of stone sculptures even from the earliest societies indulged in some form of stonework, mostly in India, Egypt, Iran, and Greece etc. But most bewitching and mesmerizing evidences of stone sculptures you can find only in India. Any states or cities in india you may go, you will definitely find evidence of stone monuments across the country. Some of commonly made statues are: Lord Shiva, Lord Ganesh, Lord Krishna, Lord Jagannath, Sai Baba, Natraj, Chariot wheel, Ashok chakra, Elephants etc. Stone Used in Sculptures Soapstone are easy to work and usually used by beginner artist and students for stone craving. Alabaster and softer kinds of serpentine are more durable than soapstone and has long been cherished for its translucence. Then comes the limestone and sandstone, which is two times stronger than Alabaster and commonly used by statue makers as it’s also excellent for carving. Marble stone carving is not that often in India, it’s mostly seen by Greece and European sculptors. It is available in wide variety of colors, like white, black, pink, red and grey etc. The hardest stone which is used for carving is granite. It is the most durable material and most difficult stone to work, that’s why it’s only used by senior artists and highly professional sculptors. The Complete process of statue making The making of a sculpture starts with choosing the stone. First of all, an artist chooses a stone according to needful weight and dimensions of the statue. The fully dimensional form or figure is created for the first time in the stone itself, as the artist removes material, sketches on the block of stone, and develops the work along the way. Roughing out When an artist carves a stone, first he/she starts to remove large unwanted portions. For this task, artist use a point chisel, which is a long, hefty piece of steel with a point at one end and a broad striking surface at the other. A pitching tool may also be used at this early stage; which is a wedge-shaped chisel with a broad, flat edge. The pitching tool is useful for splitting the stone and removing large, unwanted chunks. The sculptor also selects a mallet, which is often a hammer with a broad, barrel-shaped head. The carver places the point of the chisel or the edge of the pitching tool against a selected part of the stone, then swings the mallet at it with a controlled stroke. This is done very carefully to strike the end of the tool accurately; the smallest miscalculation can damage the stone, not to mention the sculptor’s hand. When the mallet connects to the tool, energy is transferred along the tool, shattering the stone. Most sculptors work rhythmically, turning the tool with each blow so that the stone is removed quickly and evenly. This is the “roughing out” stage of the sculpting process. Refining Once the general shape of the statue has been determined, the sculptor uses other tools to refine the figure. A toothed chisel or claw chisel has multiple gouging surfaces which create parallel lines in the stone. These tools are generally used to add texture to the figure. An artist might mark out specific lines by using calipers to measure an area of stone to be addressed and marking the removal area with pencil, charcoal or chalk. The stone carver generally uses a shallower stroke at this point in the process. Final Stages On this stage the final touch up includes lining & folding of the statue’s cloth, locks of hair and mostly polishing part. Sandpaper has been used as a first step in the polishing process or sand cloth. Emery, a stone that is harder and rougher than the sculpture media, is also used in the finishing process. This abrading, or wearing away, brings out the colour of the stone, reveals patterns in the surface and adds a sheen. Tin and iron oxides are often used to give the stone a highly reflective exterior. Today, modern stone sculptors use diamond abrasives to sand in the final finishing processes. This can be achieved by hand pads in rough to fine abrasives ranging from 36 grit to 3000 grit. Also, diamond pads mounted on water-cooled rotary air or electric sanders speed the finishing process. Udayagiri caves, Khandagiri caves, Odisha | Kanheri caves | Masroor rock cut temple | Badami cave temple | Bhaja caves | Pancha Rathas, Mahabalipuram | Karla caves | Elephant caves | Ajanta caves | Ellora caves | Konark Temple | Lord Jagannath Temple,Puri are some of the finest example of stone sculpture and monuments and every year millions of visitors come to explore these massive example of Indian culture and mastery of stone art. Earning and Lifestyle of a Sculptor The price of statue varies, relative to texture of stone, dimension and weight of stone. As if the same design with equal dimension will differ from each other in terms of texture. Where A Limestone statue of a fixed dimension will cost you 2000 INR, then a granite stone statue of the same dimension may cost you 20,000 INR. During talk with a statue maker about his earning and profit, he said that they make statue only after someone place an order, so that they don’t need to keep it for so long which will lead them to a loss. He also added profit depends on the volume of order and level of work. If someone need a roughly prepared statue of same dimension it will cost lesser than a same dimension statue with polished and sharp works. A statue of 5 feet, on an average will take 12-15 days to complete with all sharp works and polishing too. Polishing is done to expose the real colour of the statue. On a final discussion he said a few numbers of workers are left all over the india as there is no skill training available from government level. The skill training provided by private professionals are too high that, no new comer want to come into this field. He also said that, the government neither giving any financial help nor promoting this art to give them a regular income. Sculptors want to sell small statues which can be made with cut piece of big statues, as they have given price for the full stone. They want to use the whole raw material which can give them some extra income. But they didn’t have the market earlier to sell them. Now a days they are using several e-commerce platform to sell those small statue, which was not feasible before 4-5 years. Mr. Ranganathan also added some specialized platform like Spenowr, who are focused on artist, art and craft only helping them a lot to get extra visibility which they were not getting on other e-commerce platforms.

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Description : An Overview A statue made with stone, usually by carving or assembled to form a visually interesting three-dimensional shape is called stone statue. Since early civilization of human, Stone is being used in architectural sculpture on the outside of buildings and now a days it’s mostly used for making stone sculptures. We can find evidence of stone sculptures even from the earliest societies indulged in some form of stonework, mostly in India, Egypt, Iran, and Greece etc. But most bewitching and mesmerizing evidences of stone sculptures you can find only in India. Any states or cities in india you may go, you will definitely find evidence of stone monuments across the country. Some of commonly made statues are: Lord Shiva, Lord Ganesh, Lord Krishna, Lord Jagannath, Sai Baba, Natraj, Chariot wheel, Ashok chakra, Elephants etc. Stone Used in Sculptures Soapstone are easy to work and usually used by beginner artist and students for stone craving. Alabaster and softer kinds of serpentine are more durable than soapstone and has long been cherished for its translucence. Then comes the limestone and sandstone, which is two times stronger than Alabaster and commonly used by statue makers as it’s also excellent for carving. Marble stone carving is not that often in India, it’s mostly seen by Greece and European sculptors. It is available in wide variety of colors, like white, black, pink, red and grey etc. The hardest stone which is used for carving is granite. It is the most durable material and most difficult stone to work, that’s why it’s only used by senior artists and highly professional sculptors. The Complete process of statue making The making of a sculpture starts with choosing the stone. First of all, an artist chooses a stone according to needful weight and dimensions of the statue. The fully dimensional form or figure is created for the first time in the stone itself, as the artist removes material, sketches on the block of stone, and develops the work along the way. Roughing out When an artist carves a stone, first he/she starts to remove large unwanted portions. For this task, artist use a point chisel, which is a long, hefty piece of steel with a point at one end and a broad striking surface at the other. A pitching tool may also be used at this early stage; which is a wedge-shaped chisel with a broad, flat edge. The pitching tool is useful for splitting the stone and removing large, unwanted chunks. The sculptor also selects a mallet, which is often a hammer with a broad, barrel-shaped head. The carver places the point of the chisel or the edge of the pitching tool against a selected part of the stone, then swings the mallet at it with a controlled stroke. This is done very carefully to strike the end of the tool accurately; the smallest miscalculation can damage the stone, not to mention the sculptor’s hand. When the mallet connects to the tool, energy is transferred along the tool, shattering the stone. Most sculptors work rhythmically, turning the tool with each blow so that the stone is removed quickly and evenly. This is the “roughing out” stage of the sculpting process. Refining Once the general shape of the statue has been determined, the sculptor uses other tools to refine the figure. A toothed chisel or claw chisel has multiple gouging surfaces which create parallel lines in the stone. These tools are generally used to add texture to the figure. An artist might mark out specific lines by using calipers to measure an area of stone to be addressed and marking the removal area with pencil, charcoal or chalk. The stone carver generally uses a shallower stroke at this point in the process. Final Stages On this stage the final touch up includes lining & folding of the statue’s cloth, locks of hair and mostly polishing part. Sandpaper has been used as a first step in the polishing process or sand cloth. Emery, a stone that is harder and rougher than the sculpture media, is also used in the finishing process. This abrading, or wearing away, brings out the colour of the stone, reveals patterns in the surface and adds a sheen. Tin and iron oxides are often used to give the stone a highly reflective exterior. Today, modern stone sculptors use diamond abrasives to sand in the final finishing processes. This can be achieved by hand pads in rough to fine abrasives ranging from 36 grit to 3000 grit. Also, diamond pads mounted on water-cooled rotary air or electric sanders speed the finishing process. Udayagiri caves, Khandagiri caves, Odisha | Kanheri caves | Masroor rock cut temple | Badami cave temple | Bhaja caves | Pancha Rathas, Mahabalipuram | Karla caves | Elephant caves | Ajanta caves | Ellora caves | Konark Temple | Lord Jagannath Temple,Puri are some of the finest example of stone sculpture and monuments and every year millions of visitors come to explore these massive example of Indian culture and mastery of stone art. Earning and Lifestyle of a Sculptor The price of statue varies, relative to texture of stone, dimension and weight of stone. As if the same design with equal dimension will differ from each other in terms of texture. Where A Limestone statue of a fixed dimension will cost you 2000 INR, then a granite stone statue of the same dimension may cost you 20,000 INR. During talk with a statue maker about his earning and profit, he said that they make statue only after someone place an order, so that they don’t need to keep it for so long which will lead them to a loss. He also added profit depends on the volume of order and level of work. If someone need a roughly prepared statue of same dimension it will cost lesser than a same dimension statue with polished and sharp works. A statue of 5 feet, on an average will take 12-15 days to complete with all sharp works and polishing too. Polishing is done to expose the real colour of the statue. On a final discussion he said a few numbers of workers are left all over the india as there is no skill training available from government level. The skill training provided by private professionals are too high that, no new comer want to come into this field. He also said that, the government neither giving any financial help nor promoting this art to give them a regular income. Sculptors want to sell small statues which can be made with cut piece of big statues, as they have given price for the full stone. They want to use the whole raw material which can give them some extra income. But they didn’t have the market earlier to sell them. Now a days they are using several e-commerce platform to sell those small statue, which was not feasible before 4-5 years. Mr. Ranganathan also added some specialized platform like Spenowr, who are focused on artist, art and craft only helping them a lot to get extra visibility which they were not getting on other e-commerce platforms.
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Description : An Overview The Thiruvalluvar Statue, or the Valluvar Statue, is a 133-feet (40.6 m) tall stone sculpture of the Tamil poet and philosopher Valluvar, author of the Tirukkural, an ancient Tamil work on secular ethics and morality. It is located atop a small island near the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost point of the Indian peninsula on the Coromandel Coast, where two seas (the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) and an ocean (the Indian Ocean) meet. The statue was sculpted by the Indian sculptor V. Ganapati Sthapati, who also created the Iraivan Temple, and was unveiled on the millennium day of 1 January 2000 by the then Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. It is currently the 25th tallest statue in India. Description The combined height of the statue and pedestal is 133 feet (41 metres), denoting the 133 chapters of the Tirukkural. This includes 95 feet (29 metres) sculpture of Valluvar standing upon a 38 feet (12 metres) pedestal that represents the 38 chapters of Virtue, the first of the three books of the Kural text. The statue itself represents the second and third books of the Kural text, namely, Wealth and Love. The whole design signifies that wealth and love be earned and enjoyed on the foundation of solid virtue. The right hand of the statue with three fingers pointing skywards signifies the three cantos of the Kural text, namely, Aram, Porul, and Inbam (Virtue, Wealth, and Love, respectively), combined. The head of the statue stands at a height of 200 feet above the sea level. The statue, with its slight bend around the waist is reminiscent of a dancing pose of the Hindu deities like Nataraja. The statue weighs 7,000 tons (14 million pounds). The monument is regarded as a cultural fusion because of its juxtaposition beside the Vivekananda Rock Memorial. Built-in conformation with traditional Indian architecture, the statue has provision to provide a hollow portion inside from toe to scalp. Visitors, however, will not be allowed to scale, but instead be permitted to climb up to the foot of the statue at a height of 38 feet. Construction The project was conceived by then Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi in December 1975. On 15 April 1979, the then Prime Minister Morarji Desai laid the foundation stone for the statue, in the presence of the then Chief Minister, M. G. Ramachandran. However, the actual sculpting work, led by Dr.V. Ganapati Sthapati, former principal of the Government College of Architecture at Mahabalipuram, began a decade later on 6 September 1990, on the tiny island adjacent to the Vivekananda Rock Memorial when funds were allocated in the 1990-91 budget. Sthapathy was chosen for the project over 300 master builders because his suggestion for an all-stone monument to the poet-philosopher prevailed. He observed that stone would be more durable than metal, citing that the Statue of Liberty, which is made of copper, required extensive renovation just a century after its installation. Initially, the project stalled, perhaps owing to Karunanidhi's election loss, but then recommenced in 1997 when he returned to office. At the cost of more than INR 61 million (61.4 million) (US$1 million ), the project employed about 150 workers, sculptors, assistants and supervisors, who worked about 16 hours a day to complete the work. The bend around the waist depicting a dance pose made the design challenging. However, the problem was tackled well in advance by the sculptor by creating a full-length wooden prototype before construction. Study of this prototype led to the identification of an energy line (known in Vastu as kayamadhyasutra), currently an empty cavity in the center of the statue from top to bottom. The stonework was divided amongst three workshops, in Kanyakumari, Ambasamudram and Sholinganallur. Ambasamudram contributed 5,000 tons of stones, while Sholinganallur was quarried for 2,000 tons of high-quality granite stones for the outer portion of the statue. While the largest of the 3,681 stones were 13-feet long and weighed over 15 tons, the majority weighed three to eight tons. Stones of such proportions were previously used only in Mayan temples in South America. An interesting detail is a 19-foot-high face, with the ears, nose, eyes, mouth, forehead all made of individual stones carved by hand. The work was done mostly by hand, with each carver wearing down 40 to 50 sharp chisels a day. The sculptors' team considered that the manual method on granite stones is the most dependable since machines may tend to break stones and precision is difficult. Stumps of palmyra tree and poles of casuarina (ironwood) were used for scaffolding. It took 18,000 casuarina poles tied together with two truckloads of ropes to reach the top of the statue. The statue was placed on its pedestal on 19 October 1999. The statue was unveiled on the millennium day of 1 January 2000.The statue was inaugurated on 1 January 2000 by Dr. M. Karunanidhi, the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu. Besides Indian political leaders and celebrities, foreign delegates including those from Malaysia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka, participated in the opening ceremony. Several Tamil teachers from the state of Tamil Nadu took out a rally from Kottaram to Kanyakumari carrying Tirukkural placards to mark the ceremony. More than fifty thousand people gathered for the event. The chief minister, after unveiling the statue, called it a "beacon of light to guide human life for all time to come." The monument was hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami on 26 December 2004 but stood unaffected. The statue is designed to survive earthquakes of unexpected magnitude, such as magnitude 6 on the Richter Scale occurring within 100 kilometers. This is far beyond that of any event recorded in the regional history because the bedrock in the region is ancient and without known local faults. Maintenance To prevent the statue from corrosion due to sea breeze, the statue is chemically treated once in four years. The salty deposits in every joint are removed and replaced with new cement mixture. Paper pulp is then applied on the whole of the statue. As the paper pulp coating dries, it absorbs the salty deposits completely, after which it is removed. The statue has been thus treated three times since its unveiling. The fourth treatment began on 17 April 2017 and is completed by 15 October 2017. Public Access The statue stands 400 meters from the coastline of Kanyakumari on a small island rock. Ferry service are available from the mainland. The ferry service to Vivekananda Rock Memorial stops for a while at the Valluvar Statue. The Vivekananda Kendra has a proposal to connect the Valluvar memorial with the Vivekananda rock memorial by bridge to enable visitors to move easily from one island to the other.
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Description : An Overview Located at a distance of 2 km from the Amaravati Bus Stop, Dhyana Buddha Statue is a gigantic statue of Lord Buddha in Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh. Known to be among the tallest Buddha statues in India, the place is also among the top tourist attractions in the city. With a towering height of 125 feet, Dhyana Buddha Statue was commissioned in 2003 and was completed in 2015. The status sits facing the pristine River Krishna and sprawls over a humongous green space covering 4.5 acres of land. Dhyana Buddha Statue was sculpted by R. Mallikarjuna Rao, the Joint Director of Social Welfare, Guntur and is made out of brick and concrete. The design is inspired by over 50 sculptures’ designs from over 145 sites. In addition to that, Dhyana Buddha Park was built around the statue where people can visit and relax. Besides, the complex also houses a seminar hall and 20 luxury suites for Buddhist tourists visiting from all over the world. History The recorded history of Amaravati and nearby Dharanikota dates to 5th century BCE. It was the capital of Satavahanas who ruled from 3rd century BCE to 3rd century CE who are much favor in Buddhism expanded it. The most important historic monument in Amaravathi town is the Mahachaitya. It is protected by the Archaeological Survey of India which maintains a site museum known as old museum. Structural Significance The statue was commissioned in 2003 and completed in 2015. The statue has a museum in the base underneath it, which consists of sculptures depicting scenes with Buddhist significance, most modern copies of the original reliefs from the Amaravati Mahachaitya stupa which are now in museums around India and the world. The eight pillars signifies path for salvation followed by Buddha, four zones for noble truths and five ayaka pillars for stages of life. APTDC is going to complete the Theme Park in front of the statue which is said to be opened for the public in 2018. Architecture The giant Buddha Statue is seated in a resting position on top of a lotus flower and has a hollow base. The magnanimous lotus is supported by eight pillars which symbolize Lord Buddha’s eightfold path to attain salvation. The entire area is divided into four zones which depict the universal four noble truths. In addition to that, there are five Ayaka pillars that again symbolize the five stages of life as Buddha preached. What’s more? There is also an elaborate museum in the section below the statue. This museum houses reliefs of famous sculptures of Amaravati art and also tells various stories from the life of Lord Buddha - enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, how Lord Buddha gave up his palace and other events from the life and times of Buddha. There is also a Dhyana Mandiram which have 200 panels. These panels have carvings of Buddhist teachings and other related inscriptions.
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Description : An Overview The Adiyogi statue is a 34-meter-tall (112 ft) excluding plinth, 45-metre-long (147 ft) and 7.62-metre-wide (24.99 ft) statue of the Indian deity Shiva with white Thirunamam at Coimbatore in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which has been recognized by the Guinness World Records as the "Largest Bust Sculpture” in the world. Designed by Jaggi Vasudev, founder of the Isha Foundation, it was built by the foundation and weighs around 500 tonnes (490 long tons; 550 short tons). Jaggi said that the statue is for inspiring and promoting yoga, and is named Adiyogi, which means "the first yogi", because Shiva is known as the originator of yoga. Adiyogi was inaugurated on 24 February 2017 by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, on the occasion of Maha Shivaratri – a Hindu festival celebrated annually as marriage of Lord Shiva with Maa Parvati. The Indian Ministry of Tourism has included the statue as a consecration destination in its official Incredible India campaign. The Adiyogi Statue has been recognized as the "Largest Bust Sculpture" by Guinness World Records. Various environmental activists and groups protested the inauguration claiming that the statue was built in the catchment area of the Noyyal River, thus affecting biodiversity and violating building bylaws. A Public Interest Litigation was also filed by Vellingiri Hill Tribal Protection Society in the Madras High Court challenging the construction of the statue. However the Madras High court on August 12 2016 dismissed the plea, stating no merit or piece of evidence in it. Description Adiyogi is located at the Isha Yoga complex which houses the Dhyanalinga in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu at the foothills of Velliangiri Mountains, a range in the Western Ghats. The statue was designed over two years and manufactured within eight months. The bust is cast in steel. The height of the statue, 112 ft (34 m), symbolizes the 112 possibilities to attain to moksha (liberation) that are mentioned in yogic culture. Jaggi also said that the height represents the 112 chakras in the human system. The Isha Foundation plans to erect such statues in three more locations in the eastern, western and northern parts of India - in Varanasi, Mumbai and Delhi. The statue's face is world's tallest bust of Shiva. The tallest Shiva statue is the Kailashnath Mahadev Statue in Nepal 20-km east of the capital, Katmandu, which is 44 metres (143 ft) tall. A Linga called "Yogeshwar Linga" was consecrated through the ceremony called prana pratishtha, and is placed in front of the Adiyogi statue. This linga has five chakras – Muladhara (root chakra), Svadhishthana (sacral chakra), Manipura (solar plexus chakra), Vishuddhi (throat chakra), and Ajna (third eye chakra), and each one of them has sixteen dimensions. The linga specifically has no Anahata (heart chakra) as it is to represent "a heartless yogi", not heartless as being insensitive but inclusive who doesn't need emotions. Jaggi notes that the statue is named as "Adiyogi", which means "the first yogi", as Shiva is known as the originator of yoga. The South-facing Adiyogi is also called Dakshinamurthy and Adi Guru (first Guru). Inaguration In 2014, on Guru Poornima, a 6.4-metre (21 ft) version of the same statue was unveiled at the Isha Yoga Center. This version weighed 30 tonnes and was constructed in three months by a team of fifteen people. This statue was also made of steel. On 30 January 2017, a replica model of the statue was taken out in a procession. The main statue was inaugurated by Narendra Modi(Current Prime Minister of India) on Maha Shivaratri, 24 February 2017. He also inaugurated the book Adiyogi: The Source of Yoga written by Jaggi and Arundhathi Subramaniam, and lit the yajna fire for the Maha Yoga Yagna. Notable politicians present at the event include Tamil Nadu Governor C. Vidyasagar Rao, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami, Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan, Rajasthan Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje Scindia, Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu, Minister Pon Radhakrishnan, and Puducherry Lieutenant Governor Kiran Bedi. Along with politicians, various celebrities from Bollywood as well as Kollywood like actresses Juhi Chawla and Kajal Aggarwal were also present. To mark the unveiling of the statue, the song "Adiyogi - The source of Yoga" was released by the Isha Foundation on YouTube on 19 February 2017. The song was sung and composed by Kailash Kher with the lyrics being written by Prasoon Joshi and also performed live at the inaugural function by Kher. Narendra Modi at the inauguration mentioned that "[by] practising Yoga, a spirit of oneness is created. Oneness of mind, body and the intellect, oneness with our families and with the society we live in, with fellow humans and with birds, animals and trees." Another 6.4-metre (21 ft) statue of Adiyogi was unveiled in Tennessee, USA, on October 2015 by the Isha Foundation. The abode called "Adiyogi: The Abode of Yoga" in Tennessee is spread over a 2,800 m2 (30,000 sq ft) area and the project cost over $8 million.

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Description : An Overview Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the striking clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The tower was designed by Augustus Pugin in a neo-Gothic style. When completed in 1859, its clock was the largest and most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world. The tower stands 315 feet (96 m) tall, and the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square, measuring 39 feet (12 m) on each side. Dials of the clock are 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary. Big Ben is the largest of the tower's five bells and weighs 13.5 long tons (13.7 tonnes; 15.1 short tons). It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years. The origin of the bell's nickname is open to question; it may be named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw its installation, or heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben tolls on the hour. The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism, but an electric motor can be used as a backup. Design The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival style, and is 315 feet (96.0 m) high. The bottom 200 feet (61.0 m) of the tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand-coloured Anston limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 50 feet (15.2 m) square raft, made of 10 feet (3.0 m) thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet (4.0 m) below ground level. The four clock dials are 180 feet (54.9 m) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet (4,650 cubic metres). Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents were able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament before the current repair works. However, the tower currently has no lift, though one is being installed, so those escorted had to climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top. Big Ben Renovations in the 1930s Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 230 millimetres (9.1 in) over 55 m height, giving an inclination of approximately 1⁄240. This includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling for the Jubilee line extension. It leans by about 500 millimetres (20 in) at the finial. Experts believe the tower's lean will not be a problem for another 4,000 to 10,000 years. Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west. Bells Great Bell The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell but better known as Big Ben, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster. It sounds an E-natural. The original bell was a 16 ton hour bell, cast on 6 August 1856 in Stockton-on-Tees by John Warner & Sons. It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria, but that an MP suggested the bell's current nickname of "Big Ben" during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard. Chimes Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which play the Westminster Quarters on the quarter hours. The four quarter bells sound G?, F?, E, and B. They were cast by John Warner & Sons at their Crescent Foundry in 1857 (G?, F? and B) and 1858 (E). The Foundry was in Jewin Crescent, in what is now known as The Barbican, in the City of London. The bells are sounded by hammers pulled by cables coming from the link room—a low-ceiling space between the clock room and the belfry—where mechanisms translate the movement of the quarter train into the sounding of the individual bells. Cultural Significant The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio media, but as the Westminster Quarters are heard from other clocks and other devices, the sound is by no means unique. Big Ben is a focal point of New Year celebrations in the United Kingdom, with radio and television stations airing its chimes to welcome the start of the New Year. To welcome in 2012, the clock tower was lit with fireworks that exploded at every toll of Big Ben. Similarly, on Remembrance Day, the chimes of Big Ben are broadcast to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month and the start of the two minutes' silence. The chimes of Big Ben have also been used at the state funerals of monarchs on three occasions: firstly, at the funeral of King Edward VII in 1910, when Big Ben chimed 68 times, one stroke for each year of the monarch's life; secondly, at the funeral of King George V in 1936 (70 strokes); and finally, at the funeral of King George VI in 1952 (56 strokes). Londoners who live an appropriate distance from the tower and Big Ben can, by means of listening to the chimes both live and on analogue radio, hear the bell strike thirteen times. This is possible because the electronically transmitted chimes arrive virtually instantaneously, while the "live" sound is delayed travelling through the air since the speed of sound is relatively slow. Maintainance Work at Big Ben
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Description : An Overview The Indian Museum in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, also referred to as the Imperial Museum at Calcutta in colonial era texts, is the ninth oldest museum of the world and the second largest museum in India, after the Madras Museum, and has rare collections of antiques, armour and ornaments, fossils, skeletons, mummies and Mughal paintings. It was founded by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata (Calcutta), India, in 1814. The founder curator was Nathaniel Wallich, a Danish botanist. It has six sections comprising thirty five galleries of cultural and scientific artifacts namely Indian art, archaeology, anthropology, geology, zoology and economic botany. Many rare and unique specimens, both Indian and trans-Indian, relating to humanities and natural sciences, are preserved and displayed in the galleries of these sections. the administrative control of the Cultural sections, viz. Art, Archaeology and Anthropology rests with the Board of Trustees under its Directorate, and that of the three other science sections is with the geological survey of India, the zoological survey of India and the Botanical survey of India. The museum Directorate has eight co-ordinating service units: Education, Preservation, publication, presentation, photography, medical, modelling and library. This multipurpose Institution with multidisciplinary activities is being included as an Institute of national importance in the seventh schedule of the Constitution of India. It is the oldest museum in India. In particular the art and archaeology sections hold collections of international importance. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The present Director of the Indian Museum is Shri Arijit Dutta Choudhury who is also the Director General, NCSM and having the additional charge of Director General of National Library. History The Indian Museum originated from the Asiatic Society of Bengal which was created by Sir William Jones in 1784. The concept of having a museum arose in 1796 from members of the Asiatic Society as a place where man-made and natural objects collected could be kept, cared for and displayed. The objective began to look achievable in 1808 when the Society was offered suitable accommodation by the Government of India in the Chowringhee-Park Street area. This building had been designated as the site the for not just the Asiatic Societies, Oriental Museum's collection and the Economic Geology collection of the Geological Survey of India but also to hold the offices of both. The Zoological and Anthropological sections of the museum gave rise to the Zoological Survey of India in 1916, which in turn gave rise to the Anthropological Survey of India in 1945. The Scottish anatomist and zoologist John Anderson took up the position of curator in 1865, and catalogued the mammal and archaeology collections. The English zoologist James Wood-Mason worked at the museum from 1869 and succeeded Anderson as curator in 1887. Collections Egyptian It currently occupies a resplendent mansion, and exhibits among others: an Egyptian mummy. The mummy is being restored. Egyptian Mummy Statue of Ancient Egyptian God Indian The large collection of ancient and medieval Indian artefacts include remains of the Buddhist stupa from Bharhut, the Buddha's ashes, a copy of the Lion Capital of Ashoka from an whose four-lion symbol became the official emblem of the Republic of India, fossil skeletons of prehistoric animals, an art collection, rare antiques, and a collection of meteorites.The Indian Museum is also regarded as "the beginning of a significant epoch initiating the socio-cultural and scientific achievements of the country. It is otherwise considered as the beginning of the modernity and the end of medieval era" by UZER Places. Stone Imprint of Buddha's Foot Copy of the Lion Capital of Ashoka The Mathura Herakles Natural History The museum has four galleries dedicated to natural history, namely the botanical, insect, mammal and bird galleries. It also contains prehistoric artifacts such as the huge skeleton of a dinosaur. Elephant skeleton Showcases with different types of fossils Skull of Indus Valley inhabitants An Abnormal Young Goat With Eight Legs
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Description : Which Corporate Animal Are You Really? Well as the title might look to be more of an advisory article, let me guarantee....it isn’t!! With my little corporate experience and close proximity with people with different attributes, I realize all of us do represent a type of animal, in the corporate world. As and when we step inside the “Khul ja sim sim” door, we all change to a different being...some stay human and others turn into a wholesome new being. Ohh just to clear, those considered humans are the freshers..the new entrees to the corporate zoo, who gradually, necessarily not by wish but by force, will change to “Corporate animals” either voluntarily or by force. Let’s see the behavioral traits that the corporate employees share with animals in the zoo. Donkeys: Ahh these are the people in majority. Certainly the employees can be identified by very specific features like very hard working without any concern about the reason behind each act as well the destination to be reached. They definitely believe in being available to their masters 24*7 and putting all efforts to do the told “jobs” without even knowing the relevance of each act. Also, they are often seen loading themselves with unbearable loads, much more than their capacity and roles they are assigned to, without showing concern, just to be ahead of the other beings in same creed. Horses: These are the employees with traits equivalent to horses. They have nothing to do with anything in and around them. But once given a goal or destination, they run to achieve them. Focused yet ignorant of the facts detailing changes in and around them, even though at times they don’t realize the competition they have been trying to “win” has been dispersed. They are fast but one tracked, always on the urge to reach the destination whatsoever. Dogs: Though being dogs may sound negative but its not. Matching the traits, it points the most loyal employees of the company. Loyal to company, bosses & work. They exactly justify the tag “humans best friend”. They are the safe players, liked by the bosses and always used as an example. The lowest risk takers but smart workers, yeah they do exists…. But as the traits suggests they are definitely not best with colleagues and always on the hit list of the team. Since they are biased and diplomatic (always maintaining their loyalty to the seniors) they become the least accepted value adders in any project. Monkeys: They are the keen followers of their seniors or as I say dominants. They are good at mimicking the work methods, process, attitude and every possible thing that they think has contributed to the success of their bosses. They have the very basic trait of monkeys….to jump. They are very indecisive, frequently changing their roles, interests, work, skill and very specifically attitude. Their behavior changes in very situation even for same person. Very much unpredictable, yet very opportunistic. Blame game is their strength and being jumpy their have their ways to come out of a situation even if they are at fault (which can be negative for the submissive teammates working with them). Snakes: Ohh you have to be so careful from these people. As like snakes these are the most dangerous creature of all. Mostly making their way forward by killing every hurdle (people in corporate world) coming their way. They keep climbing the corporate hierarchy at snake speed. Nothing can stop them and of course they don’t stop for others. Very are never a leader but always a BOSS. Appreciation and money are their food and staying ahead is what make them keep going. They don’t hesitate destroying others coming in the way to stay ahead of everyone. Fearless and always daring to do everything that could lead to their success. Inspite of the above traits they are good learners. These all above may sound too much of pessimistic, Hello, isn’t it! But it’s not a fair world at all. People out there always looking for a chance to crush you under the cleat of their shoes. But where there is life there is millions of possibilities, so lemma introduce you to the animal, which is Very rarely found & one of its kind. The Jaguars! JAGUAR: These are the once who are icon of Focus, commitment & sheer will. They don’t care what people are taking behind, they are always young in their mind and promising at their work place rather than being challenging or competing others as they believe the competition is only inside to be a better version of themselves as they were yesterday. Whatever Position they might achieve, they never believe on taking advantages of their hierarchy at organization. As the jaguar is such an animal, who can over through any animal with it’s speed, so vigorous and have such an endurance to overcome any kind of unpleasant situation and having a agility to hunt their prey by deteriorating its stamina in a playful manner and not by killing directly. These rare beings are having the same DNA, same infection that, they don’t believe on fixing things, they believe on finding problems over & over and then Making a solution for it. But it’s not an everyday thing which you can witness, come across or deal with maybe you can find only one or two of this kind in your whole life, as they believe success is not an achievement, it’s a lifestyle. But at last I want to exaggerate a truth or a question that often come to my mind that as Jaguar on corporate explained “Is that the state of oxymoron what anyone can ever achieve or there is something above and beyond?” Well these are the most commonly found “corporate animals”. Look around and have fun categorizing people in your workspace (also self :P ). Also, let me know if you find traits matching some other species of animal kingdom….. ????
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Description : An Overview The Government Museum is the second oldest museum after Indian Museum, Kolkata and tenth old museum in world. This Museum have a wide collection of human history and culture located in the neighbourhood of Egmore in Chennai, India. Started in 1851. It is particularly rich in archaeological and numismatic collections. It has the largest collection of Roman antiquities outside Europe. Among them, the colossal Museum Theatre is one of the most impressive. The National Art Gallery is also present in the museum premises. Main Buliding Built in Indo-Saracenic style, it houses rare European and Asian painting of renowned artists, including that of Raja Ravi Varma. It is the third largest museum in the world, and with 0.6 million visitors in 2018. It has the richest collections of bronze idols, 500 of them dating to 1000 BC, in Asia. History In 1778, the governor of Madras granted 43 acres for an estate to a civil servant, who, subsequently in 1793, assigned the grounds to a committee of 24 which then regulated the public amusements in the city. In 1821, the committee sold the main house and central garden space to E. S. Moorat, an Armenian merchant who, in turn, sold it back to the government in 1830. The government first used the buildings and the grounds as the collector's "Cutcherry" and later for the "Central Museum." The museum was originally established in a building on College Road in Nungambakkam in the year 1851 and was shifted to the present site in 1854. Building Architecture The museum complex consisting of six buildings and 46 galleries covers an area of around 16.25 acres (66,000 m²) of land. The objects displayed in the museum cover a variety of artifacts and objects covering diverse fields including archeology, numismatics, zoology, natural history, sculptures, palm-leaf manuscripts and Amravati paintings. Located close to the main museum entrance gates on Pantheon Road, the museum theatre is a rare specimen of the Italianate style of architecture, inspired by Classical architecture and developed in 1802 at Britain by John Nash. However, the theatre was built by the British in the late 19th century when this style was no longer popular in England. The structure has a high plinth and is accessed through a tall flight of stairs. It is primarily a semicircular structure with a rectangular wing at the rear. The latter wing now houses some of the galleries of the museum. The main hall is accessed through a verandah with a row of columns linked by semicircular arches. The walls and columns are embellished with floral and geometric designs. The huge main hall was initially designed for staging theatrical performances. It has around 600 seats and a commodious stage and the actors' dressing rooms adjoin this stage. Collections Cannons at the museum complex Sculpture of Vishnu in bronze from the Chola period Sculpture of Bhadrakali in bronze from the 14th century CE Sculpture of Dakshinamurthi from the Chola period, 12th century CE Sculpture of Mahishasuramardini in bronze from the Chola period, 11 century CE Contemporary Paintings Folk Religion Dinosaur Skeleton